color = khaki
name = "Polysiphonia"
image_width = 240px
genus = "Polysiphonia"
genus_authority = Greville
subdivision_ranks = Species
"Polysiphonia" is a
genusof red algaewith about 19 specieson the coasts of the British Islesand about 200 species world-wide, including Antarcticaand Greenland. cite web |url=http://www.algaebase.org/generadetail.lasso?genus_id=37461 |work= AlgaeBase|title="Polysiphonia" Greville 1823: pl. 90 |author=Norris, R.E. & Guiry, M.D. |date= 2006-03-15] cite book |author=Stegenga, H., Bolton,J.J. & Anderson,R.J.|year=1997| title=Seaweeds of the South African West Coast |publisher=Bolus Herbarium Number 18] It is in the Order Ceramiales and Family Rhodomelaceae. cite book |author=Abbott, I.A. & Hollenberg,G.J. |year=1976 |title=Marine Algae of California |publisher= Stanford University Press, California |isbn=0-8047-0867-3 |oclc=180623827]
"Polysiphonia" is a red alga, filamentous and usually well branched some plants reaching a length of about 30 cm. They are attached by
rhizoidsor haptera to a rocky surface or other alga. The thallus(tissue) consists of fine branched filaments each with a central axial filament supporting pericentral cells. The number of these pericentral cells, 4–24, is used in identification. Cite book |author=van den Hoek, C., Mann,D.G. & Jahns,M.H. |year=1995 |title=Algae: An Introduction to Phycology |publisher= Cambridge University Press, Cambridge |isbn=0-521-30419-9 |oclc=28182088] [cite journal |quotes=no |url=http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artmar99/red.html |title="Polysiphonia", a red alga |author=Parmentier,Jan |journal=Micscape Magazine |year=1999] [cite web |url=http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/d44/polysiph.htm |title="Polysiphonia nigrescens" |date= 2003-07-31|publisher= University of Hamburg|work=Botanik online |author=von Sengbusch,Peter] "Polysiphonia elongata" [cite web |author=Guiry,M.D. |date= 2004-09-23|work= AlgaeBase|title="Polysiphonia echinata" Harvey |url=http://www.algaebase.org/speciesdetail.lasso?species_id=173&sk=40&from=results] shows a central axial cell with 4 periaxial cells with cortical cells growing over the outside on the older fronds.
Features used in identification include the number of pericentral cells, the cortication of main branches, constriction of young branches at their base, whether the branching dichotomous or spiral, and the width and length of thalli.
Distribution and ecology
The species are entirely marine, found growing on rock, other algae,
musselsor limpetsand artificial substrata etc from mid-littoral to at least 27 m depth. Many species are abundant in rock pools. "Polysiphonia lanosa" is commonly found growing on " Ascophyllum nodosum." [cite web |url=http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/Polysiphonialanosa.htm |title="Polysiphonia lanosa" |publisher=Marine Life Information Network for Britain & Ireland]
The life-cycle of the red algae has three stages (triphasic). In "Polysiphonia" it consists of a sequence of a gametangial,
carposporangialand tetrasporangialphases. cite book |author=Dixon,P.D. |year=1973 |title=Biology of Rhodophyta |publisher= Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh |isbn=0-05-002485-X |oclc=944032] Male ( haploid) plants (the male gametophytes) produce spermatia and the female plants (the female gametophytes) produce the carpogonium (the haploid carpogonium) which remains attached to the parent female plant. After fertilization the diploidnucleus migrates and fuses with an auxiliary cell. A complex series of fusions and developments follow as the diploid zygotedevelops to become the carposporophyte, this is a separate phase of the life-cycle and is entirely parasiticon the female, it is surrounded by the haploid pericarp of the parent female plant. The diploid carposporesproduced in the carposporangium when released are non-motile, they settle and grow to form filamentous diploid plants similar to the gametophyte. This diploid plant is the tetrasporophyte which when adult produced spores in fours after meiosis. These spores settle and grow to become the male and female plants thus completing the cycle. cite book |author=Mondragon, J. & Mondragon, J. |year=2003 |title=Seaweeds of the Pacific Coast |publisher=Sea Challengers, California |isbn=0-930118-29-4 |oclc=50912900]
"Polysiphonia atlantica" Kapraun & J.Norris. cite book |author=Maggs, C.A. & Hommersand, M.H. |year=1993 |title=Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1: Rhodophyta |publisher=
HMSO, London |isbn=0-11-310045-0 |oclc=28928653]
*cite web |url=http://www.mbari.org/staff/conn/botany/reds/Sarah/index.htm |title="Polysiphonia" |author=Sarah Skine |year=2000 |publisher=
Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
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