- Lacrimal gland
Name = PAGENAME
Latin = glandula lacrimalis
GraySubject = 227
GrayPage = 1028
Caption = Lacrimal apparatus of the right eye. The lacrimal gland is to the upper left. The right side of the picture is towards the nose.
Caption2 = Tear system.
b = superior
c = superior lacrimal canal
e = inferior
f = inferior lacrimal canal
lacrimal nerve, facial nerve
DorlandsPre = g_06
DorlandsSuf = 12392431
The lacrimal glands are paired almond-shaped
glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film. They are situated in the upper, outer portion of each orbit.
Each lacrimal gland is divided into orbital and
palpebralportions by the aponeurosisof the Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, the portions are continuous with each other.
* The "orbital portion" is the largest of the portions, and its convex superior surface is lodged in the
lacrimal fossaof the orbit.
* For the smaller "palpebral portion", its inferior surface lies close to the eye; if the upper
eyelidis everted, the palpebral portion can be seen.
The orbital portion contains fine
interlobular ducts that unite to form 3 - 5 main excretory ducts, joining 5 - 7 ducts in the palpebral portion before the secreted fluid may enter on the surface of the eye. Tears secreted collect in the fornixconjunctiva of the upper lid, and pass over the eye surface to the lacrimal puncta. [ "eye, human."Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica 2006 Ultimate Reference Suite DVD 5 Apr. 2008 ]
The lacrimal gland is a compound
tubuloacinar gland, it is made up of many lobulesseparated by connective tissue, each lobule contains many acini. The acini contain only serous cells and produce a watery serous secretion.
Each acinus consists of a grape-like mass of "lacrimal gland cells" with their apices pointed to a central lumen.
The central lumen of many of the units united to form
intralobular ducts, and then unite to from interlobular ducts. The gland lacks striated ducts.
The "sensory innervation" to the lacrimal gland is from the
lacrimal nerveof the trigeminal nerve.
parasympatheticnerve supply" originates from the lacrimal nucleusof the facial nervein the pons. Just distal to the geniculate ganglion, the facial nerve gives off the greater petrosal nerve. This nerve carries the parasympathetic secretomotor fibers through the pterygoid canalto the pterygopalatine ganglion. Here the fibers synapse and postganglionic fibers join the fibers of the Maxillary Nerve, which travels through the inferior orbital fissure. Once it has traversed this opening, the parasympathetic secretomotor fibers branch off with the zygomatic nerve and then branch off again, joining with the lacrimal branch of the ophthalmic division of CN V, which innervates the lacrimal gland.
sympatheticpostganglionic fibres" originates from the superior cervical ganglion. They travel as a periarteriolar plexus with the middle meningeal artery, before they merge and form the deep petrosal nerve, which joins the greater petrosal nerve in the pterygoid canal. Together, greater petrosal and deep petrosal nerves form the nerve of the pterygoid canal (vidian nerve) and reach the pterygopalatine ganglion in the pterygopalatine fossa.In contrast to their parasympathetic counterparts, sympathetic fibers do not synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion, having done so already in the sympathetic trunk. However, they continue to course with the parasympathetic fibers innervating the lacrimal gland.
lacrimal artery, derived from the ophthalmic arterysupplies the lacrimal gland. Venous blood returns via the superior ophthalmic vein.
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