- Larry Norman
Infobox musical artist
Name = Larry Norman
Img_size = 125
Img_capt = Larry in Ohio, October 2001
Background = solo_singer
Birth_name = Larry David Norman
Born = Birth date|1947|4|8|
Corpus Christi, Texas, United States
Died = Death date and age|2008|2|24|1947|4|8
Origin = USA
San Jose, California
Rock music, Folk rock, Gospel rock
Years_active = 1966–2007
Label = Capitol, MGM/Verve,Solid Rock, Phydeaux
URL = [http://www.larrynorman.com larrynorman.com]
Larry David Norman (
April 8 1947– February 24 2008) was an American musician, singer, songwriter and producer. Norman's recordings are noted for their Christian and social subject matter, and he is often described as the "father of Christian rockmusic".Sanford, David [http://www.christianitytoday.com/music/news/2005/larrynorman.html "Farewell, Larry Norman"] "Christianity Today" 2005-06-27retrieved 2007-12-26"The man known as the Father of Christian Rock, whose health has been failing in recent years, played his last U.S. concert Friday night in his hometown of Salem, Oregon."] Norman has also been described as having had a significant influence on many artists, secular and religious.Quillen, Sherry [http://www.mercurynews.com/shayquillen/ci_7205393?nclick_check=1 "Local legends on stage"] "San Jose Mercury News" 2007-10-17retrieved 2007-12-27"His gritty, idiosyncratic approach to "Jesus rock" earned him a devoted following that wasn't limited to Christian music fans. Charles Thompson III, who called himself Black Francis when he fronted the influential group the Pixies, is one of his fans in the secular world."]
Norman had long been associated with the
Jesus Peoplemovement of the late 1960s and early 1970s, [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,905202-6,00.html "The New Rebel Cry:Jesus is Coming!" "Time" 1971-06-21retrieved 2007-12-26]"Go Tell About Jesus—The sounds produced by the rock groups are not always good nor the lyrics always effective evangelism, but the best of the Jesus-rock music is both professionally and theologically solid. Larry Norman, probably the top solo artist in the field, attacks the occult in his album "Upon This Rock": "Forget your hexagram/ You'll soon feel fine/ Stop looking at the stars/ You don't live under the signs."] although it has been reported that "he did not particularly identify himself with the youth–oriented 'Jesus movement' of the time".Alfonso, Barry [http://www.musicianguide.com/biographies/1608003665/Larry-Norman.html Larry Norman Biography] Musicianguide.com retrieved 2007-12-27] [Alfonso (2006 18-19)]
Norman began recording in 1966 and recorded numerous albums. Norman's first album, "I Love You", recorded when he was the lead singer for the group
People!, was released in 1968. The band's cover version of The Zombiessong of the same name reached number 14 on Billboard magazine's top twenty list in June of that year as a single. Norman left People! prior to 1969 and subsequently performed as a solo artist, appearing both on mainstream and independent labels.cite web | url = http://www.religionnewsblog.com/19712/people|title= Split over Scientology, 60s band 'People' reunites for one night|author= Ron Harris|publisher= The Salinas Californian ]
In 2001 Norman was inducted into the
Gospel Music Association's Hall of Fame as a solo artist. [ [http://www.gmahalloffame.org/inductee_bio.cfm?ID=387 Gospel Hall Of Fame page] ] In 2007 Norman was inducted into the "San Jose Rocks Hall of Fame" ( San Jose, California), both as a member of People!, and as a solo artist. At that time Norman reunited for a concert with People!
Larry Norman was born on
April 8 1947in Corpus Christi, Texas. Three years later, the family moved to San Francisco, California. From an early age, Norman was fascinated with the music of Elvis Presley. At the same time, he also frequently accompanied his father on Christian missions to prisons and hospitals. At the age of nine, he began writing and performing original rock and rollsongs at school, experimenting with incorporating a spiritual message into his music.
The kids at school seemed impressed with Elvis, [but] none of them accepted my invitations to go to church, Norman told "Contemporary Musicians". "So one day I brought church to them, walking around from bench to bench singing.
In 1959, Norman performed on Ted Mack's syndicated
CBStelevision show " The Original Amateur Hour". Upon leaving home in the mid-1960s, he moved to San Jose, Californiaand became involved in the local rock music scene, opening for both The Doorsand Jimi Hendrix.
In 1965/66, Norman joined brothers Geoff and Robb Levin to form the band "People!": the name was intended as an ironic contrast to bands with animal names, such as "The Beatles", "The Animals", and "The Byrds". Norman became the band's principal songwriter, sharing lead vocals with Gene Mason. The band was also joined by drummer Dennis Fridkin and keyboardist Albert Ribisi. [http://www.crossrhythms.co.uk/articles/music/People_Drummer_and_songwriter_Denny_Fridkin_recounts_his_life_in_music/28810/p1 Denny Fridkin Crossrythms.UK] ] In 1966, People! signed with
Capitol Records, releasing the single "Organ Grinder/Riding High." They began immediate work on a full-length album and released another single, a cover of The Zombies' song "I Love You", which quickly became a hit single. "I Love You" reached the Billboard Top 20 and became a #1 single in several markets.
However, this success would be cut short by a series of disputes, both between the band members and between the band and their record label. First, all of the band members except lead singers Norman and Mason embraced
Scientology, and zealously issued the ultimatum: "We all have to get into Scientology or you can't be in the band." Norman and Mason refused.
A second incident involved the release of "People!"'s first album. Larry Norman expected to name the album after the song "We Need A Whole Lot More of Jesus, and a Lot Less Rock and Roll" and to feature Christian imagery on the album cover. However, Capitol Records decided to name the album after the single "I Love You" instead, with a photograph of the band on the cover. Facing censorship by his record label and a forced religious conversion by his bandmates, Larry Norman left the band upon the release of its first album.
Despite Norman's departure, the band's second album "Both Sides of People" (1969) featured one Larry Norman composition, the song "She's a Dancer". Norman and Mason also reunited in 1974 for a benefit concert at
UCLA, later released as the live album "Larry Norman and People!—The Israel Tapes—1974 A.D."
The six original members of "People!" reconciled and reunited in 2006. After nearly 40 years, they came together for a final concert on 19 October 2007, where they were afterwards inducted into the San Jose Rocks Hall of Fame.
Early 2008 Larrry Norman wrote his two last songs with the german christian singer/songwriter Sarah Brendel who has long adored Larry Norman for his unique and unblemished style.Fact|date=September 2008
Recording "The Trilogy"
In 1969, Norman recorded his first solo rock album, "Upon This Rock", with Capitol Records. Speaking to the magazine "Contemporary Musicians", Norman later expressed his intentions and feelings about the record:
I wanted to push aside the traditional gospel quartet music, break down the church doors and let the hippies and the prostitutes and other unwashed rabble into the sanctuary...I wanted to talk about feeding the poor, going into the world.... [I felt that] most of the modern music was anemic and needed a transfusion.
While Norman drew ire from much of the conservative religious establishment, his music gained a large following in the emerging countercultural movements. While working at Capitol Records, he was approached by
Paul McCartney, who wanted to discuss his music. [Norman, Larry. [http://www.one-way.org/lovesong/norman.htm "The Jesus Movement - "Singing A New Song" "The Liberator" one-way.org] retrieved 2007-12-27] ] This encounter encouraged Larry, although he inserted a jab at McCartney into the lyrics of his next album."I've been listening to Paul's records, I think he really is dead," from the song "Reader's Digest." This is an allusion to the rumor of McCartney's deathFact|date=July 2008.
In 1972 (now with
MGMRecords) he recorded a second studio album with help from Beatlesproducer George Martin, titled "Only Visiting This Planet". The same year, Norman made a film appearance in " The Blob" sequel " Son of Blob". [cite book|isbn=0823077187|title=The Billboard Guide to Contemporary Christian Music|last=Alfonso|first=Barry|pages=248|publisher=Billboard Books|date=2002]
In 1973 he released another album with MGM, titled "So Long Ago the Garden." However, believing that his record label was once again interfering with the subject matter of his records, Norman left MGM to become an independent artist.
"Only Visiting This Planet", "So Long Ago The Garden" and "In Another Land" are commonly referred to as "The Trilogy." [http://newmusicplease.com/?p=10 "Larry Norman - So Long Ago The Garden"] "newmusicplease.com"
As an independent artist
After leaving MGM, Norman was described as "a stubbornly independent artist for three decades." The majority of Norman's music that was produced during his most creative years (1966 - 1978, from his "People!" albums up through solo works like "Something New Under the Son") remain the fountainhead of his creative work. Until his death he continuously released albums and recordings under the label
Solid Rock Records.
His songs were wide-ranging, addressing such matters as politics ("The Great American Novel"),
free love("Pardon Me"), the passive commercialism of war–time journalists ("I Am The Six O'Clock News"), witchcraft and the occult ("Forget Your Hexagram"), alienation ("Lonely by Myself"), religious hypocrisy ("Right Here In America") and many topics largely outside of the scope of his contemporaries.
In addition to his own recordings, Larry Norman produced music by a few other independent artists, such as
Randy Stonehilland Salvation Air Force. The most high-profile (and most controversial) recording to be released on Norman's label was the Daniel Amosalbum " Horrendous Disc", produced by Mike "Clay" Stone.
In 1981, Norman and his father started Phydeaux Records in order to compete with a market of
bootlegs of his own music. Norman reported that his vinylalbums have sold for up to $400(USD) among collectors.
In 1989, prior to the fall of the Soviet Union, Larry and his brother Charles were scheduled to play a show in
Moscow. Norman relates that he and his brother became ill after eating a meal that had been prepared as a "special menu" for them. Shortly afterwards, a trio of nurses ("built like football players") appeared in his room and wanted him to go to the hospital. Norman became suspicious and refused. The concert was cancelled by (Soviet) army personnel twenty minutes after the band began to play. Hagestadt, André [http://www.kxl.com/ArDisplay.aspx?SecID=13&ID=15847 "The genesis of Christian rock: Larry Norman interview"] KXL.com 2003-01-10retrieved 2007-12-27] Despite this incident, Norman returned and performed at Moscow's Olympic Stadium in 1990. After seven successful shows at the stadium, he decided to open a branch of Solid Rock Records in the city.
On rock and folk music
By 1971, "Time" magazine was reporting on the growth of the Jesus Movement, the magazine stated, "It's like a glacier...it's growing and there's no stopping it." "Time" went on to say of Norman: "(he was) probably the top solo artist in the field" [cite web|title=The New Rebel Cry: Jesus is Coming!|publisher=Time|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,905202,00.html|accessdate=2008-05-12] , Norman later distanced himself from "Time's" characterizations of his involvement. "Time" reported that
Eric Claptonhad become a "convert of the Jesus Movement," and a 1971 cover article also named members of Peter, Paul, and Maryand Fleetwood Macwithin its sphere of influence. Johnny Cashwas also named. He eventually produced the film/double album " The Gospel Road".
During the 1970s, Norman embarked on an effort to help musicians who were struggling with drug problems. He began a Bible study group called "The Vineyard" for actors and musicians, which folk/rock performer
Bob Dylanstarted to attend. Dylan subsequently became familiar with Norman's records "Only Visiting This Planet" and "So Long Ago the Garden". During this period, he released three albums that were stylistically similar to Norman's: " Slow Train Coming" (1979), "Saved" (1980), and " Shot of Love" (1981).Source: Promotional Materials for "So Long Ago the Garden (remastered)", [http://www.merchantmanager.com/phydeaux/MM003.ASP?pageno=27 (External commercial site.)] ]
While Norman said in a 1984 interview that he didn't know Dylan very well, he remembered thinking "This is the greatest album I've ever heard" when "Slow Train Coming" was released. He said of the album "I'll never write one as good as that, he'll never write one as good as that, - nobody will. It touched me in every area. You know men in conflict, like Dylan was when he was dying to self and becoming a Christian are very interesting... We were all afraid that he would be overly affected by the evangelical simplicity of American mindlessness and write an album that wasn't really worth his gift for poetry. That album is like a prayer, it's a beautiful prayer, a social communion. It's a communion for all the disenchanted people that are angry." [http://dagsrule.com/stuff/larry/intvw84.html Larry Norman interview,] "Strait," 1984.]
Van Morrisonand American singer-songwriter John Mellencamphave also claimed to be fans of Larry Norman's musicFact|date=June 2008. Over 300 artists have covered his songs, including Sammy Davis, Jr.[http://www.knet180radio.com/00_artistcorner_artistdetails.asp?iArtistId=1931155010 Larry Norman: The Gospel Music Hall of Fame Biography] , reproduced by KNET radio. "Later, even Bob Dylan, John Mellencamp, Black Francis of The Pixies nee Frank Black, the group U2, and Van Morrison have called themselves fans."]
According to rock historian Walter Rasmussen,
Pete Townshendonce admitted that The Who's 1969 album "Tommy" was inspired by the rock opera "Epic" by People!. However, Townshend has since denied the connection. [Source: Liner notes from "People: I Love You Korea" (2007).]
On punk/alternative rock
Following tours by the first wave of punk musicians in the British Isles in the mid-1970s, the post-punk band
U2was formed in Dublin, Ireland. Active simultaneously in the local punk music scene and the "Shalom Fellowship," some members of U2 eventually became "fans" of Larry Norman's music. Both artists performed, making unannounced appearances, at the U.K.'s Greenbelt Festivalin 1981. [cite web|title=Larry in the UK|publisher=Larry Norman UK|url=http://www.larrynorman.uk.com/inuk.htm|accessdate=2008-05-12] Charles Thompson IVdiscovered Larry Norman's music at age 13 after moving to California and seeing him in concert. Thompson said of Norman during this period: "I don't think Larry Norman was necessarily respected by religious people...he had more of a rebellious rock'n'roll kind of an image." "I dressed like him, I looked like him, he was my total idol." [Frank, Josh Caryn Ganz, "Fool the World: The Oral History of a Band Named Pixies" (St. Martin's Press, 2006) 83-84. ISBN 978-0312340070] While at college in Massachusetts, Thompson adopted the stage name Black Francis, and formed The Pixiesalong with Joey Santiago, Kim Deal, and David Lovering. According to Kim Deal, the title of the Pixies' 1987 EP " Come On Pilgrim", as well as a similar line from the song "Levitate Me," derive from a Norman catchphrase used during live performances. In the 1987 recording and subsequent performances of the Pixies song "Levitate Me," lead singer Black Francis shouts "Come on Pilgrim, you know He loves you!" while imitating Larry Norman's accent. [Frank (2006) 84.]
While recording the Pixies' album "
Surfer Rosa", producer Steve Albinirecognized the Pixies' references and realized that he and Black Francis both "had an affection" for Norman's music. They discussed Larry Norman at length during the recording process of the album. [Frank (2006) 99-100]
With the increased popularity of alternative rock in the 1990s, The Pixies earned increased recognition for their work. They were invited by U2 to join them on the
Zoo TVtour in 1992. At one show, Francis was introduced to Larry Norman by members of U2, who had informed him beforehand that Larry would be coming to the show. [Frank, Josh Caryn Ganz, "Fool the World: The Oral History of a Band Named Pixies" (St. Martin's Press, 2006) 215. ISBN 978-0312340070 "Thompson: I remember my first opportunity to meet Larry Norman came through U2 of all people. A lot of people in the U2 organization are Christians, basically."]
Black Francis' debut solo album "Frank Black and the Catholics", recorded in 1997 and released in 1998, featured a cover of Larry Norman's song "Six-Sixty-Six."
Collective Soul, who released several successful alternative rock singles during the 1990s and early 2000s, cited Daniel Amosas a major inspiration for their work. Norman released Amos' album " Horrendous Disc" on his label in 1981.
Beginning in 2004, The Pixies embarked on a reunion tour. During this time, in June 2005, frontman Black Francis joined Larry Norman for what was expected to be his final U.S. concert. The pair performed Norman's 1978 song "Watch What You're Doing."
Larry Norman's brother is Charles Norman, an alternative rock guitarist who also performed at the June 2005 concert. He is presently a member of the band Guards of Metropolis (previously Softcore) as well as Frank Black's post-"Catholics" backing band.
On contemporary Christian music
Larry Norman's relationship with the wider Christian church, and with the
Contemporary Christian musicindustry, has been contentious for a number of years. According to Portland news/radio station KXL, Norman's early social positions caused a stir among many conservative Christians. His views against racism and poverty caused him to receive multiple death threats in the 1970s. A widespread ban on Norman's music, which is largely still in effect today, existed in Christian stores. This ban was due not only to Norman's social positions, but his preferred company as well. Said Norman in a separate interview:
The churches weren’t going to accept me looking like a street person with long hair and faded jeans. They did not like the music I was recording. And I had no desire to preach the gospel to the converted."
When asked if his 1969 album "
Upon This Rock" was a "Christian" album, Norman stated, "No, it was not a Christian album for those believers who wanted everything spelled out. It was more like a street fight. I was saying [to Christians] ...This album is not for you."Rumburg, Gregory [http://www.larrynorman.com/press/1.html reproduced at Larry Norman.com] "Rock for the Ages" CCM Magazine] [Spencer, Michael [http://www.internetmonk.com/articles/L/larry.html internetmonk.com ] retrieved 2007-12-27CCM: Larry, think back to 1969 and the release of your "Upon This Rock" on Capitol. Was that a "Christian" album as we think of them today? If not, what was it?NORMAN: "Upon This Rock" was written to stand outside the Christian culture. I tried to create songs for which there was no anticipated acceptance. I wanted to display the flexibility of the gospel and that there was no limitation to how God could be presented. I used abrasive humor and sarcasm as much as possible, which was also not a traditional aspect of Christian music. I chose negative imagery to attempt to deliver a positive message, like "I Don't Believe in Miracles" is actually about faith. "I Wish We'd All Been Ready" talked about something I had never heard preached from a pulpit as I grew up. "The Last Supper" and "Ha Ha World" used very surreal imagery which drug users could assimilate. My songs weren't written for Christians. No, it was not a Christian album for those believers who wanted everything spelled out. It was more like a street fight. I was saying [to Christians] , "I'm going to present the gospel, and I'm not going to say it like you want. This album is not for you."] Commenting on Christian music in 1984, Norman said: "I'm pleased with what's happening in England and Europe...but I'm not totally thrilled about the commercialisation of Christian music in America." Two years prior to the 1984 interview, he had complained that Christian music generally meant "sloppy thinking, dishonest metaphors, and bad poetry" and stated that "I've never been able to get over the shock of how bad the lyrics are."
In recent years, however, many CCM artists have credited Norman as an influence on their music, particularly in the subgenre of
Christian rock. He is often cited as influencing both Keith Greenand Randy Stonehillin their conversions to Christianity. (In turn both eventually became Christian music artists.) He has granted interviews to magazines covering Contemporary Christian music and accepted industry awards. When asked about the relationship between CCM and his own music, Norman has replied "I'm happy if I've been an encouragement to other artists."
In 1986, Norman appeared in a music video with Christian artist Geoff Moore and the Distance for a cover version of his song "Why Should the Devil (Have all the Good Music?)"
In 1995, several Contemporary Christian music artists released a tribute album, "One Way: Songs of Larry Norman". Several popular Christian artists contributed to the project, including
dc Talk, Rebecca St. James, Audio Adrenaline, and Grammatrain.
In 2001 Norman was inducted, along with
Elvis Presley, into the Gospel Music Hall of Fame.
In the mid-1990s,
Simpsons Comicsreleased a limited edition print of a "Simpsonized" Larry Norman performing "Why Should the Devil Have all the Good Music?" In addition to the Simpsons Comics release, a Simpsonswatch was also produced featuring the yellow, three-fingered likeness of Larry Norman. [Information about the production of the watch is not immediately available, but its existence can nevertheless be verified. For example, an eBay member attempted to sell one in early December 2007. The listing and accompanying photograph may still be seen here: http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&item=170175176699]
Norman died on
2008-02-24, aged 60, at his home in Salem, Oregon with family and friends present. [cite news | url=http://www.larrynorman.com/news/022408.html | title=LARRY NORMAN 4/8/47 - 2/24/08 | publisher=LarryNorman.com | accessdate=2008-02-25 | date= 24 February 2008| first=Charles | last=Norman ] The previous day he had posted a message regarding his illness on his website:
I feel like a prize in a box of cracker jacks with God's hand reaching down to pick me up. I have been under medical care for months. My wounds are getting bigger. I have trouble breathing. I am ready to fly home. I won't be here much longer. I can't do anything about it. My heart is too weak. I want to say goodbye to everyone. In the past you have generously supported me with prayer and finance and we will probably still need financial help. My plan is to be buried in a simple pine box with some flowers inside. But still it will be costly... However money is not really what I need, I want to say I love you. I'd like to push back the darkness with my bravest effort. There will be funeral information posted on my website, in case some of you want to attend. We are not sure of the date when I will die. Goodbye, farewell, we will meet again. [ [http://www.statesmanjournal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080225/UPDATE/80225031 "Statesman-Journal" "Larry Norman, 'father of Christian rock music,' passes away in Salem at age 60"]
Following Norman's death, "World" magazine reported that he had fathered a child out of wedlock with an
Australianwoman Jennifer McCallum (née Wallace) during a tour in 1988. According to McCallum she has made the information public at this time because Norman had broken a "promise" to include the young man, Daniel Robinson, in Norman's will. [Orteza, Arsenio [http://www.worldmag.com/articles/14180 "Larry Norman's tragic post-mortem "] "World Magazine", 2008-07-12retrieved 2008-07-17]
A documentary on Norman's life by David DiSabatino, maker of a previous documentary on
Lonnie Frisbee, is due out in 2008. [cite web | title=Larry Norman, 'Father of Christian Rock,' Dies at 60 | last= | first= | work=ChristianityToday | url=http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2008/februaryweb-only/109-22.0.html?start=2 | date= | accessdate=2008-02-27 ]
Since the 1960s, Larry Norman's work has appeared on over 90 albums, compilations, and concert bootlegs. These recordings have been released under various labels, with various artists. A partial sampling of these albums is listed below.
Notes and references
*citation|last=Alfonso|first=Barry |title=The Billboard Guide to Contemporary Christian Music |place=New York| publisher=Billboard Books|year= 2002|isbn= 978-0823077182.
* [http://www.larrynorman.com Official Larry Norman Site]
* [http://larrynorman.uk.com Official British Site]
* [http://www.onlyvisiting.com/larry/interviews/VOG/larry.html Larry Norman Interview]
* [http://www.burnsidewriterscollective.com/general/2008/03/larry_norman_says_goodbye.php Larry Norman's final interview]
* [http://matthiasmedia.com.au/briefing/longing/5087/ Larry Norman at 60]
* [http://music.guardian.co.uk/obituaries/story/0,,2260140,00.html Obituary in "The Guardian", 27 February 2008]
* [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article3506298.ece Obituary in "The Times", 7 March 2008]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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