- Symmetry (biology)
:"Bilateral symmetry" redirects here. For bilateral symmetry in mathematics, see
Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes. The body plans of most
multicellular organisms exhibit some form of symmetry, either radial symmetry or bilateral symmetry or glide symmetry. A small minority exhibit no symmetry (are asymmetric).
natureand biology, symmetry is approximate. For example, plant leaves, while considered symmetric, will rarely match up exactly when folded in half.
These organisms resemble a pie where several cutting planes produce roughly identical pieces. An organism with radial symmetry exhibits no left or right sides. They have a top and a bottom (dorsal and ventral surface) only.
Most radially symmetric animals are symmetrical about an axis extending from the center of the oral surface, which contains the mouth, to the center of the opposite, or aboral, end. This type of symmetry is especially suitable for
sessileanimals such as the sea anemone, floating animals such as jellyfish, and slow moving organisms such as starfish(see special forms of radial symmetry). Animals in the phyla cnidariaand echinodermata exhibit radial symmetry (although many sea anemones and some corals exhibit bilateral symmetry defined by a single structure, the siphonoglyph) (see Willmer, 1990).
flowers are radially symmetric (also known as actinomorphic). Roughly identical petals, sepals, and stamenoccur at regular intervals around the center of the flower
pecial forms of radial symmetry
jellyfishhave four canals and thus exhibit tetramerous radial symmetry. This form of radial symmetry means it can be divided into 4 equal parts.
This variant of radial symmetry (also called pentaradial and pentagonal symmetry) arranges roughly equal parts around a central axis at orientations of 72° apart.
*AnimalsMembers of the phyla
echinodermata(such as starfish and sea urchins) have parts arranged around the axis of the mouth in five equal sectors. Being bilaterian animals however, they initially develop biradially as larvae, then gain pentaradial symmetry later on. The radiolarians demonstrate a remarkable array of pentamerism forms. Examples include the Pentaspheridae, the Pentinastrum group of general in the Euchitoniidae, and Cicorrhegma (Circoporidae).
Flowering plants demonstrate symmetry of five more frequently than any other form.
Around 1510–1516 A.D.,
Leonardo da Vincidetermined that in many plants a sixth leaf stands above the first. This arrangement later became known as 2/5 phyllotaxy, a system where repetitions of five leaves occur in two turns of the axis. This is the most common of all patterns of leaf arrangement.
Various fruits also demonstrate pentamerism, a good example of which is seen in the arrangement of the seed
carpels in an apple.
Hexamerism and octamerism
Corals and sea anemones(class " Anthozoa") are divided into two groups based on their symmetry. The most common corals in the subclass "Hexacorallia" have a hexameric body plan; their polyps have sixfold internal symmetry and the number of their tentacles is a multiple of six.
Corals belonging to the subclass "Octocorallia" have polyps with eight tentacles and octameric radial symmetry.
In bilateral symmetry (also called plane symmetry), only one plane, called the
sagittal plane, will divide an organism into roughly mirror imagehalves (with respect to external appearance only, see situs solitus). Thus there is approximate reflection symmetry. Often the two halves can meaningfully be referred to as the right and left halves, e.g. in the case of an animal with a main direction of motion in the plane of symmetry.
Most animals are bilaterally symmetric, including humans (see also
facial symmetry), and belong to the group Bilateria. The oldest known bilateral animal is the Vernanimalcula. Most bilateral animals have an "identical" shape on either side, as if cut by a mirror.
Bilateral symmetry permits streamlining, favors the formation of a central nerve center, contributes to
cephalization, and promotes actively moving organisms. Bilateral symmetry is an aspect of both chordates and vertebrates.
Flowers such as members of the orchid and
peafamilies are bilaterally symmetrical (also known as zygomorphic). The leaves of most plants are also superficially bilaterally symmetrical. A carefrul examination of leaf vein patterns often shows imperfect bilateral symmetry. also, the pattern of leaves on a branch or stem may often show glide symmetry, with left, right alternation, rather than perfect bilateral symmetry.
The notable exception among animals is the
phylumPorifera ( sponges) which have no symmetry.
Supernumerary body part
* [http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/sci/A0847482.html Fact Monster]
*Heads, Michael. "Principia Botanica: Croizat's Contribution to Botany." "Tuatara" 27.1 (1984): 26-48.
* [http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/w/x/wxm15/Online/Zoology%20Unit/zoology_links.htm "Zoology"] a website by the Monaco educational service
* Willmer, P. G. (1990). Invertebrate Relationships : Patterns in Animal Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
* [http://www.livescience.com/othernews/051221_symmetry_nature.html Live Science.com] article called "Symmetry in Nature: Fundamental Fact or Human Bias?" By Ker Than
* [http://www.geodakian.com/en/70_Asymmetry_en.htm Evolutionary Theories of Asymmetrization of Organisms, Brain and Body]
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