Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration

Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration

name =Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration
native_name =Norges Handelshøyskole
latin_name =

motto =
established =1936
type =Public University
endowment =
staff =300 (total)
rector =Jan I. Haaland
students =2,800
undergrad =
postgrad =
doctoral =
city =Bergen
state =
country =Norway
campus =
free_label =
free =
colors =
colours =
mascot =
affiliations =
website = []

The Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration ( _no. Norges Handelshøyskole) or NHH was founded in 1936. Ever since its foundation, it has been a bastion of higher education in economics and business administration in Norway. NHH was ranked as the 21st best European business school in 2006.Fact|date=August 2008


NHH has changed much since it was first conceived over 100 years ago. Norway's first business school is now part of a global network comprising some of the world's leading institutions for the research and teaching of economics and business administration. This has been achieved over the last 100 years, with much work done to establish a Norwegian School of Business in Bergen before the doors opened in 1936.

1900–1936: Establishing a business school in Norway

The business communities in Oslo and Bergen began discussing the establishment of a Norwegian school of business at the end of the 19th century. A number of business schools had been established across Europe and during the early 20th century several business schools were established in Scandinavia based on model of the German "handelshochschule" (business school). Amongst them, the Stockholm School of Economics and the Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration (Hanken) in Helsinki were both established in 1909, followed by the Helsinki School of Economics in 1911 and Copenhagen Business School in 1917. In 1917 Norway's parliament (the Storting) passed a resolution to establish an institution for higher education and research based on the German "handelshochschule" model.

1936–1963: NHH opens and sets to work

After much lobbying and hard work, especially by Kristoffer Lehmkuhl, "Norges Handelshøyskole" (NHH) was finally opened by King Haakon VII on Monday the September 7, 1936. This was 10 years before the University of Bergen was established. The strong involvement of the business community in Bergen had ensured that not only was the school established, but that it was established in Bergen and was closely linked to business community from the very start.

When NHH first opened, the academic staff consisted of fewer than ten people and sixty students were enrolled each year. The first degree course offered was the "Handelsdiplom" (business diploma) and graduates received the title "Handelskandidat" (business graduate). This was initially a two-year course and, starting in 1938, a one-year additional course was offered to candidates who wanted to become teachers. As with all the business schools in Scandinavia at the time, the curriculum was heavily influenced by the German business education model. In 1946 the "Handelsdiplom" course was extended to three years.

After the Second World War, American influence became more important in the teaching of economics and business administration. Graduates and staff began to go to the US to continue their studies and work for a period, a trend that greatly increased in the 1960s and 1970s. By the early 1950s the need for a doctoral programme at NHH had grown. In 1956 NHH received permission from the Norwegian government to award doctorates and in 1957 the first doctoral candidate graduated from NHH.

1963–1980: A new campus and rapid growth

By the late 1950s NHH had outgrown its original premises and work began on developing a new campus for NHH at Breiviken, just outside the city centre. In 1963 the school moved to the new campus, an event which in many ways marked the transition to a new period which was characterised by a rapid increase in the number of students as well as teachers. The new campus provided a huge increase in capacity and the annual intake of students increased from 60 to over 200. In total there were now 304 students and 67 staff.

An important feature of this period was the growth and development of the faculty. The new facilities made it possible to employ many new, talented people and the importance of research as well as teaching was strengthened. Many successful graduates went to the US to study for doctorates and came back to NHH with international experience and a more research based focus. Many faculty members took advantage of sabbaticals to study and continue their research overseas, many textbooks were published and the volume of publications in international journals increased significantly. A driving force behind this expansion and internationalisation of research was Professor Karl Borch.

During this time Professor Jan Mossin's seminal paper "Equilibrium in a Capital Asset Market" was published in Econometrica, contributing significantly to the development of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). About the same time as Mossin returned to NHH from Carnegie Mellon with his doctorate, future Nobel laureate Finn E. Kydland went to the same university for his doctoral studies. Most of the US educated doctoral graduates came back to NHH to teach and continue their research, but some stayed in the US and a few (like Kydland) returned to NHH only to later go back to the US to continue their work.

As the faculty grew and developed so did the academic offerings, with several advanced level courses established. In 1963 the name of the Handelsdiplom degree was changed to "siviløkonom", with graduate receiving the same title. A master level programme, "høyere avdelingstudium" (HAS), was introduced in 1972 as a preparation for "siviløkonom" students wishing to continue on to doctoral studies; and in 1973 Professor Dag Coward established a master level programme for students wishing to specialise in auditing, accounting and the financial management of firms, the "høyere revisorstudium" (HRS). In 1975 the "siviløkonom" degree course was extended to a four-year programme.

1980–2000: Specialisation and international expansion

In the early 1980s it was realised that the doctoral programme required updating and a new, structured PhD programme was introduced involving taught courses in addition to the research and writing of a thesis. This new PhD programme continued the focus on research at NHH, rather than just teaching. The first candidate to graduate from the new PhD programme did so in 1985 and the annual number of graduates rose from 1 in 1985 to 12 in 1990.

The focus on expansion and internationalisation of research was recognised in 1984 as NHH was ranked 7th globally and 3rd in Europe in the American Economic Review amongst economics schools or departments in non-English speaking countries by publications in leading journals.

During this period, close relations with international research environments were also established. The international activities at the school have increased considerably and the international focus has become stronger over the years. In 1984 NHH established their first international exchange agreement with the Stockholm School of Economics, and in 1986 NHH became the first institution in Norway to offer a master degree programme taught entirely in English - the Master of International Business (MIB). Following this, greater emphasis has been placed on exchange arrangements for students, and the school joined the prestigious Community of European Management Schools (CEMS) and the Erasmus programme in 1992 and the global Partnership in International Management (PIM) network in 1995.

Student and staff numbers continued to rise throughout the 1980s and 1990s. By 1985 there were 1670 students and 198 members of staff in total.

2000–present: Continued growth and development into the 21st century

The "siviløkonom" qualification was extended to 5 years in 2003. In line with the Bologna declaration, it now comprises a 3 year Bachelor of Science in Economics and Business Administration combined with a 2 year Master of Science in Economics and Business Administration.

NHH alumnus and Adjunct Professor Finn E. Kydland was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 2004, together with Professor Edward C. Prescott of Arizona State University. Kydland was giving a lecture at NHH when news of the award arrived.

In 2005 the Financial Times ranked the MSc programme at NHH amongst the top 20 European Masters in Management programmes, and the school was rated Best for Economics and 4th for Finance in the Financial Times survey of alumni.

In 2007 NHH announced the launching of a new master programme taught fully in English, the MSc in Energy, Natural Resources and the Environment.

Today, NHH comprises over 2,700 full time students and a total staff of over 330. Together, NHH and its associated foundations constitute a major academic and organisational entity with more than 470 employees, and they are the leading centre of competence for economics and business administration in Norway.


tudent life

The Student Association at NHH (NHHS) [] is one of the most active student organizations in Northern Europe. At NHH there are groups to accommodate almost every student interest. As would be expected for a leading business school, NHHS has many groups involved with economics and business issues. These groups maintain contact with the business community and serve to stimulate interest in and improve knowledge of various sectors Norwegians and international business. This is achieved through conferences, seminars, company visits, excursions in Norway and abroad and trainee programs in various businesses. The Student Association is lead by a board of seven people - Kjernestyret. []

* NHH has several bands and choirs that brighten up the rainy days of Bergen. Although each choir and band has their own distinct character and charm, they do have some common features. The musical groups with a long history at NHHS include the male choir Svæveru', the female choir Sangria [] , the mixed choir Optimum, the brass band Direksjonsmusikken and the Big Business Band.

* NHH also has school teams in several sports, including badminton, basketball, soccer, lacrosse, volleyball, handball, golf, indoor bandy and diving.

* Every two years NHHS organises a three week music festival called UKEN. The origins of UKEN date back to 1946 when the students at NHH organised the first "studenteruken" or students' week. After 1980 UKEN developed into a much broader event and it has now grown into the second largest festival in Western Norway.

* The largest event held by NHHS for the business community is Symposiet (NHH-Symposium) [] , a visionary biennial conference at which leading executives, researchers and students from Norway and abroad participate.

* Næringslivutvalg (NU - the Business Committee) is the main link between students at the NHH and employers worldwide. They establish contact between companies looking to recruit and students looking for jobs, and provide all the necessary services needed by both parties.

* In addition to the on-campus facilities at NHH, NHHS also owns the cabin Kramboden in the mountains south west of Bergen. Many of the clubs and societies within NHHS organize trips to Kramboden and students can rent the cabin themselves for a reasonable price.

* NHHS has its own TV news program, K7 Minutter [] and a wide variety of groups cover various sports, economics and business topics, music and other interests. A selection of groups that have been very popular among international students in the past include:

* The local committee of AIESEC at NHH is one of the original seven founding committees. AIESEC is the world's largest student-run organization focusing on leadership development, through a large internship program.

* Amnesty International is a globally renowned human rights organization focusing on the release of prisoners of conscience. NHH has its own chapter of Amnesty International.

* Friluftsgruppa (Hiking group) arranges tours in the mountains of varying length and intensity every semester.

* GEP (Global Economic Perspectives) focuses on the consequences of global economic activity. GEP has no political affiliation. The group's main focus is to arrange a one-day student conference around a topic related to global economic perspectives.

* Foto NHHS is the student association's photo group.

* K7 Bulletin, or Bulle, is the school newspaper and is printed every two weeks.

* Lurken Telemarkslag (The Telemark Skiing Group) is one of the largest groups in the school, with over 200 members. It arranges trips to Voss, Finse, Eikedalen and, of course, Kramboden.

* MiB Council All MSc in International Business students are automatically members of the MiB Council, which organises social events and activities to help the International Business students get to know each other better, to involve them with the local business community and to raise the profile of the students overseas. The MiB Council organises the MiB Forum for Norwegian businesses every autumn semester.

* NHH Aid is the student group for humanitarian work. The students collect money and work to raise awareness regarding the poor living conditions in third world countries.

* Oikos is part of a network of student groups in business schools across the world, working to integrate sustainability into business and management through education.

* StafettKomiteen (Stafkom - The Running Club) The goal is to beat BI (The Norwegian School of Management) in the annual relay race between Bergen and Oslo. It takes place at the end of the spring semester, lasts for 2-3 days, and ends with a grand banquet at either BI or NHH.

* Økonomiske Vinterleker (Economic Winter Games) takes place at Ål during the first week of February. Almost 300 students from both NHH and BI (The Norwegian School of Management) gather to compete in winter sports and to socialise.

* Børsklubben (the Stock Club) is the stock analysis group. "Børsklubben" founded Lehmkuhl Invest AS, a joint investment company owned by students at NHH.

*NHHS Consulting This is a student-run and owned consulting firm. It aim is to offer various services for student groups at NHH and do commissions for local firms in Bergen.

Notable NHH students, alumni, and professors


*Karl H. Borch
*Finn E. Kydland, Nobel Prize in Economics, 2004
*Jan Mossin, derived the capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
*Victor D. Norman, trade economist, politician, and newspaper columnist
*Agnar Sandmo, professor with several important contributions to public economics.

Arts and Entertainment

*Agnar Mykle, author
*Jo Nesbø, musician and author
*Amund Djuve, editor-in-chief, Dagens Naeringsliv (Norwegian Business Daily)


*Jon Fredrik Baksaas, CEO Telenor
*Inge K. Hansen, President and CEO Aker Kværner
*Idar Kreutzer, CEO Storebrand
*Jannik Lindbæk, Senior Vice President, Aker Solutions
*Helge Lund, CEO StatoilHydro
*Johan Fr. Odfjell, Chairman of the board Orkla
*Dag J. Opedal, CEO Orkla
*Erling Øverland, President NHO - Confederation of Norwegian Business and Industry
*Svein Aaser, Former CEO DnB NOR

Government / Law / Public Policy / Human Rights

*Kristin Clemet, politician. Fmr. Minister of Education and Research. Currently director of Civita.
*Knut Arild Hareide, politician. Fmr. Minister of the Environment. Currently deputy leader of the Christian People's Party
*Kristin Krohn Devold, politician. Fmr. Minister of Defense. Currently secretary general of the Norwegian Trekking Association (DNT)
*Thorolf Rafto, human rights activist and inspirator
*Christian Thommessen, Director of the Division for Business Partnerships, United Nations Development Fund
*Knut Vollebæk, politician. Ambassador to the United States.


*CEMS – Community of European Managements Schools
*PIM – Partnership in International Management

External links

* [ NHH for foreign students] - Real experiences of former Erasmus and other international students in Bergen a on iAgora.
*cite web |url= |title=Financial Times - European Masters in Management Rankings 2006 |accessdate= |format= |work=

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