Pyrrhura

Pyrrhura

Taxobox
name = Pyrrhura



image_width = 220px
image_caption = Green-cheeked Parakeet ("Pyrrhura molinae")
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
ordo = Psittaciformes
familia = Psittacidae
subfamilia = Psittacinae
tribus = Arini
genus = "Pyrrhura"
genus_authority = Bonaparte, 1856
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = See text.

"Pyrrhura" is a genus of parrots in the Arini tribe. They occur in tropical and subtropical South America and southern Central America (Panama and Costa Rica). Most are restricted to humid forest and adjacent habitats, but one species, the Blaze-winged Parakeet, prefers savanna-like habitats, and another, the Pfrimer's Parakeet, is restricted to dry regions. Some species are highly endangered.

Depending on the species, the total length range from 22 to 30 cm (8½-12 in). All have long, pointed tails, a mainly green plumage, and a relatively narrow, dark greyish to white eye-ring. Many have scaly or barred chest-patterns and a whitish, pale grey, buff or reddish ear-patch.

They typically move around in small, noisy flocks, flying swiftly at or below canopy level. Once settled in a tree they tend to be silent (esp. if aware of danger) and difficult to spot. They nest in a tree-crevice.

Some species are popular in aviculture where they commonly are referred to as conures instead of parakeets.

The taxonomy of some groups, in particular the "Pyrrhura picta" and the "P. leucotis" complexes, have changed significantly in recent years, but not all authorities accept this, e.g. SACC accept the split of the latter, but not that of the former. Furthermore, the taxonomic status of individuals of the "P. picta" complex from far north-eastern Peru (the so-called "group 6" in Joseph, 2002) remain unclear.

pecies

* Blue-throated Parakeet, "Pyrrhura cruentata"
* Maroon-bellied Parakeet, "Pyrrhura frontalis"
** Blaze-winged Parakeet, "Pyrrhura (frontalis) devillei"
* Crimson-bellied Parakeet, "Pyrrhura perlata" (formerly "P. rhodogaster")
* Pearly Parakeet, "Pyrrhura lepida" (formerly "P. perlata")
* Green-cheeked Parakeet, "Pyrrhura molinae"
* Painted Parakeet, "Pyrrhura picta"
** Hellmayr's Parakeet, "Pyrrhura (picta) amazonum"
*** Madeira Parakeet, "Pyrrhura (picta/amazonum) snethlageae"
** Deville's Parakeet, "Pyrrhura (picta) lucianii"
** Red-crowned Parakeet, "Pyrrhura (picta) roseifrons"
*** Wavy-breasted Parakeet, "Pyrrhura (picta/roseifrons) peruviana"
** Sinú Parakeet, "Pyrrhura (picta) subandina" (possibly extinct)
** Todd's (Perijá) Parakeet, "Pyrrhura (picta) caeruleiceps"
* Fiery-shouldered Parakeet, "Pyrrhura egregia"
* White-eared (Maroon-faced) Parakeet, "Pyrrhura leucotis"
** Grey-breasted Parakeet, "Pyrrhura (leucotis) griseipectus"
** Pfrimer's Parakeet, "Pyrrhura (leucotis) pfrimeri"
** Venezuelan Parakeet, "Pyrrhura (leucotis) emma"
* Santa Marta Parakeet, "Pyrrhura viridicata"
* Maroon-tailed Parakeet, "Pyrrhura melanura"
* El Oro Parakeet, "Pyrrhura orcesi"
* Black-capped (Rock) Parakeet, "Pyrrhura rupicola"
* White-necked Parakeet, "Pyrrhura albipectus"
* Flame-winged (Brown-breasted) Parakeet, "Pyrrhura calliptera"
* Red-eared Parakeet, "Pyrrhura hoematotis"
* Rose-headed (Rose-crowned) Parakeet, "Pyrrhura rhodocephala"
* Sulphur-winged Parakeet, "Pyrrhura hoffmanni"

pecies photographs

References

* Joseph, L. (2002). "Geographic variation, taxonomy and distribution of some Amazonian Pyrrhura parakeets." Ornitologia Neotrpical 13 (4): 337-363.
* Juniper, T., and M. Parr (1998). "A Guide to the Parrots of the World". Pica Press, East Sussex. ISBN 1-873403-40-2
* Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. Version 28 Jun. 2007. [http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html "A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union."]
* Restall, R., C. Rodner, and M. Lentino. (2006). "Birds of Northern South America - An Identification Guide.". Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-7242-0
* Ribas, C., L. Joseph, and C. Miyaki (2006). "Molecular systematics and patterns of diversification in Pyrrhura (Psittacidae), with special reference to the picta-leucotis complex." Auk 123 (3): 660-680.


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