Lilium pardalinum subsp. pitkinense

Lilium pardalinum subsp. pitkinense

Taxobox
name = Pitkin Marsh lily
status = EN


image_width =
image_caption =
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Liliopsida
ordo = Liliales
familia = Liliaceae
genus = "Lilium"
genus_authority = L.
species = "L. pardalinum"
subspecies = "L. p." subsp. "pitkinense"

The Pitkin Marsh lily, or "Lilium pardalinum" subsp. "pitkinense", is an endangered perennial herb of the Liliaceae family that is endemic to certain wetland areas in the California Coast Ranges of Sonoma County, California, USA. [http://www.fws.gov/sacramento/es/plant_spp_accts/pitkin_marsh_lily.htm U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service plant profile for the Pitkin Marsh lily] ] This member of the lily family attains a height of one to two meters and blooms in the months of June and July. The Pitkin Marsh lily is found in the narrow elevation range of 35 to 60 meters above mean sea level. [http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8349,8592,8602,8604 "Jepson Manual", University of California Press (1993)] ] The etymology of the genus name derives from the Greek word "Lilium" which means "lily". There are only three known colonies of this rare species including the Pitkin Marsh, [P. Rubtzoff, "A phytogeographical analysis of the Pitkin Marsh (Sonoma County)". Wasmann Journal of Biology. 11:129-219 (1953).] situated near State Route 116 between Sebastopol and Forestville, California; [ [http://audubon.sonoma.net/alerts/pitmarsh.html Sonoma County Audubon Society Online] ] a land development proposal has been proposed which would infringe upon this marsh, which contains a second rare plant species, the White sedge, "Carex albida".

Morphology

The leaves of the Pitkin Marsh lily are typically about 14 centimeters long and one to two centimeters in width. Petals are red at their outer margins, transitioning to yellow at the centers, with small dark maroon dots. The anthers are purplish-brown. This species is distinguished from its more common lookalike, the Panther lily ("Lilium pardalinum") by shorter petals and anthers. The whorled leaves of the Pitkin Marsh lily are staggered along the stem, and are generally ellipical to oblanceolate in shape. [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242102261 Flora of North America: Profile of the Pitkin Marsh lily] ] Near the Pitkin Marsh, individuals are found which seem to be hybrids with the closely related Panther lily. [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242102261 Flora of North America: Profile of the Pitkin Marsh lily] ]

Habitat and range

The Pitkin Marsh lily is found only in freshwater marshes and wet meadows [http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8349,8592,8602,8604 "Jepson Manual", University of California Press (1993)] ] in western Sonoma County, California. There are only three known colonies of this rare plant in the vicinity of the towns of Sebastopol and Cotati, California. The historic range is thought to have been throughout a slightly wider portion of the wetlands of Sonoma County, ["Environmental Impact Report for the proposed Roblar Road Rock Quarry", Earth Metrics Inc. Report 7673, prepared for Sonoma County and the California State Clearinghouse, September, 1989] with much higher densities of organisms, possibly ranging into the Laguna de Santa Rosa. This herb occurs only between elevations 35 to 60 meters above mean sea level.

Conservation

The U.S. Federal Government undertook hearings on listing the Pitkin Marsh lily as early as 1996. [ [http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-SPECIES/1996/September/Day-11/pr-10236.html U.S. Federal Register: Consideration of federal listing of nine plant species] ] In 1997 this species was placed on the United States list of endangered plants, [ [http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/SpeciesReport.do;jsessionid=CB34EABFB5BB7A1C042976C5DFB73CC4?spcode=Q141 U.S. Federal Register 62 FR 54791 54808 (1997)] ] and the State of California classified the plant as "California Endangered" in 1978.cite web
last = Habitat Conservation Planning Branch
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Conservation profile of Pitkin Marsh lily
work =
publisher = California Department of Fish and Game
date = 2006
url = http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/cgi-bin/read_one.asp?specy=plants&idNum=144
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-04-05
] The habitat of this rare plant has been greatly reduced from historic levels primarily through cattle overgrazing; [ [http://www.sierraclub.org/wildlife/species/map/california.asp Sierra Club plant profile for the Pitkin Marsh lily] ] additional losses have been sustained by collectors seeking this plant for its rarity and beauty. Ongoing threats to this species are deemed to be cattle grazing and alteration of wetlands hydrology and water quality.

There are three known extant colonies of the Pitkin Marsh lily in wetland areas of western Sonoma County. [ [http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/ASP/CPC_ViewProfile.asp?CPCNum=2550 Center for Plant Conservation: Profile for Pitki Marsh lily] ] The owner of the first property has denied researchers access to the colony since 1975. It is presumed that the plants still exist, but there is no confirmation of the number of organisms remaining. The second site is the Pitkin Marsh, which was nearly extirpated by land development in 1960s, but approximately 200 plants remain. A major subdivision is planned in the surrounding area, but a "conservation easement" agreement between the California Department of Fish and Game and the landowner will mitigate in preserving this population. The recent threat to the Pitkin Marsh colony occurred when a 27 acre parcel, including part of the marsh, was proposed for development as a 29 bed residential care facility. This zoning application is pending with the County of Sonoma. At the third known site, where this had once been a common species, only two individuals remain. This loss was due to wetland filling, but was primarily caused by the collection of specimens and bulbs for horticultural use. Owners of the latter two sites entered into voluntary protection agreements with The Nature Conservancy in 1989.

ee also

*Americano Creek

References

External links

* [http://www.renyswildflowers.com/20251.html Photographic image of Pitikin Marsh lily]
* [http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?stat=BROWSE&query_src=photos_flora_com&where-genre=Plant&where-namesoup=Pitkin+Marsh+Lily&rel-namesoup=matchphrase Calphotos photographs of the Pikin Marsh lily and closely related species]


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