- German settlement in Argentina
Infobox Ethnic group
group = German-Argentines
caption = Notable German-Argentines
Hermann Burmeister· Néstor Kirchner· Héctor Germán Oesterheld Carlos Reutemann· Milagros Schmoll· Haydée Tamara Bunke Bider
poptime = 2,000,000-2,800,000 (Germans: between [http://www.embajada-alemana.org.ar/culturas/main_becas1.htm 600,000] and [http://www.hospitalaleman.com.ar/institucional/anios.htm 1,000,000] )(Volga Germans: more than [http://www.alemanesvolga.com.ar/libros/folleto.html 1,200,000] )
6% of Argentine's population
Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Province, Entre Ríos, La Pampa Province, Córdoba, Río Negro Province, Misiones, Chaco, Santa Fe, Neuquén.
langs = Predominantly
Rioplatense Spanish, minority speak German
Christianity(mostly Roman Catholic and Protestantism)
related = German,
German American, German-Chilean, German-Brazilian, German-Paraguayan, German Mexican, German-Canadian
German Argentines (German: Deutschargentinier, Spanish: germano argentinos) are Argentines of German descent. The term "German" usually refers to
Ethnic Germansthat immigrated to Argentina from Germany, and also from Austria, France, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, former Yugoslaviaand elsewhere across Europe. Some German-Argentines, or their ancestors, have originally settled in Brazil, Paraguay, Chile, or Uruguayfirst, then later on immigrated to Argentina. Germany as a political entity was founded only in 1871, but German language and culture have traditionally been of more importance than the country of origin as a basis for ethnic consciousness and nationalism. Beside that, "Germans" speak in many different dialects named after specific regions like Friesian, Pomeranian, Prussian, Swabian, Plautdietsch, Hunsrückisch, Volga Germans and others. Germans today make up the third largest group in Argentina with well over 1,200,000 Volga Germans alone. Thousands of German-Argentines had become professionals and technicians like doctors, bureaucrats, teachers and soldiers. They took strong influence into the Argentine education system and many German schools emerged. Many German businessmen and professionals believed that Argentina was industrializing and would become more dependent from German advanced technology. Indeed the Argentine military planned recruiting large numbers of German scientists and technologists for new steel and other industries. Also creating German-language newspapers, the Argentinisches Tageblattmeaning in German the "Argentine Daily".
German Immigration to Argentina
When the first wave of German
physicistsarrived in Argentina during the decade before 1914, they would have found a large German community centered around the capital. Between 1885 and the First World War the population of Argentina doubled with the influx of three million immigrants, 100,000 of whom spoke German. Strong German communities developed in Argentina, and especially in Buenos Aires with their own schools, hospitals, shops, theaters, sport clubs and banks. Many in the upper middle class feared assimilation and maintained strong ties to German culture, providing high-quality German instruction so that their children would not be at a disadvantage when they returned to Germany. German power lay in the manpower of the German colonies, in the political force of the National Socialist and Pan-German ideologies, in the strong personal and political influence exerted by the two on Argentine society, and in the German economic empire extended into Argentina. During the 1920s and 1930s the German-speaking collectives had strong influence in Argentine politics. After World War I and World War II due to the social situation in Germany and because large German colonies already existed, many German speakers emigrated to Argentina. After the large number of Germans immigrated to Argentina between World War I and II, an additional 250000 entered the country between 1945-71.
German immigration to Argentina occurred during 5 main time periods: pre–1870, 1870–1914, 1918–1933, 1933–1940 and post–1945. During the first period till 1870, immigration to Argentina was in general low. Of note are the "colonias alemanas", the first one founded in the province of Buenos Aires in 1827. The "colonias" are a unique and notable phenomenon in Argentina’s immigration history but were also far from an exclusively German practice.
During the second period, from 1870 until 1914, Argentina experienced a massive boom in immigration due to or causing massive economic expansion in the port of Buenos Aires and in the wheat and beef producing
pampas. In this time frame, the German speakers of Argentina established themselves and developed several institutions, which are often examined in academic studies, such as newspapers, schools and social clubs. Despite originating from all over German speaking Europe, once in Argentina, a new, Germanic Argentine identity developed. One example of this can be found in the studies of Das Argentinische Tageblatt(newspaper); it was founded by Swiss immigrants but, by the 1930’s, became the primary forum for exiles from Nazi Germany.
During the third period, after a pause during
World War I, immigration to Argentina again resumed and German speakers came in their largest numbers. This can be attributed to increased immigration restrictions in the United Statesand Brazilas well as the deteriorating conditions in post-World War I Europe. The two largest years of German immigration to Argentina were 1923 and 1924, approximately 10,000 in each year. This period is of particular interest because while the older groups of German speakers began to feel a sense of cultural crisis due to the assimilation policies of the Argentine state, the new arrivals gave new life to German cultural institutions, such as the aforementioned newspaper, and created new ones. Between 1905 and 1933, the number of German schools rose from 59 to 176. Though found throughout Argentina, over 80% were located in Buenos Aires, Misiones, or Entre Ríosin 1933. Further, attendance at German schools rose from 3,300 in 1905 to 12,900 in 1933. The studies inherently favour Buenos Aires, where half of all Germans lived, over the colonias because fewer institutions, particularly newspapers, developed.
During the fourth period, from 1933-1940, Argentina experienced another surge in Germanophone immigration. The majority were
German Jewsalthough other German opponents to Nazism also came. In total 45,000 German speakers came at this time and half settled in Buenos Aires. From 1933 to 1945, they comprised 28% of total immigration to Argentina, as mass migration to Argentina was slowing. Two recent German studies have been written on these arrivals’ impact on Das Argentinische Tageblatt and how the newspaper was used by anti-Nazi immigrants within the Argentine German-speaking community’s debate about fascism.
The fifth and final category of German immigration to Argentina involves the period following
World War II. The numbers were not as large as in the past and the concepts of acculturation and linguistic and cultural persistence are not dealt with in the same way. The group did not congregate as tightly and participated more in mass culture. Further, because of an era of national identities and the post-World War II problems of promoting German identity, the pre-existing process of assimilation was not met with resistance by the new arrivals.
Though most studies attempt to provide some frame of reference about the Germans of Argentina by supplying population statistics, the provided numbers vary enormously. Depending on who is counted, the numbers produced are nothing short of perplexing. Walter Nugent writes that between 1871 and 1928, 64,000
Reichsdeutschewent to Argentina according to the German government. However, according to Argentine authorities, 118,000 arrived. Nugent explains this is because Argentine officials often included Austrians, Swiss, and Germanophone Russians as Germans. This issue becomes more complicated, however, because in a 60 year period, these 118,000 people had children, but, at the same time, some returned to Germany. In counting “Germans”, the authors are confronted with diverging factors of the oldest arrivals being more assimilated than later arrivals. According to Olga Weyne, in her book "El Último Puerto: Del Rhin al Volga y del Volga al Plata", the German embassy in 1910 stated that there were 25,000 Germans but 100,000 Germanophones in Argentina. Neither one of these figures, however, corresponds to Nugent’s number of 118,000 immigrants plus German-speaking children. Moreover, Anne Saint Sauveur-Henn cites the "German Peoples’ Federation for Argentina (Deutscher Volksbund für Argentinien)" in 1936, which estimated there to be 240,000 German speakers. A potential complication for the study of Germans is the issue of what constitutes a Germanophone. Of course somebody with no accent in German and an accent in Spanish is a native speaker of German. However, third or fourth generation children who lived in a zone of transculturation may speak better Spanish than German. At some point, the word Germanophone, which would not be applicable to an Argentine who has learned German, might not be applicable to naturalized Argentines with German last names. Most of these examinations do not outline where to draw the line in order to determine a “Germanophone”. However, Marisa Micolis’ 1973 anthropological study of one colonia in Misiones, "Une communauté allemande en Argentine: Eldorado: Problèmes d’intégration socio-culturelle" argues that naturalized German-Argentines retained the cultural traits of their parents. In 1965, only 34% of the inhabitants of Misiones spoke exclusively Spanish. Her questionnaire revealed that even in 1965, German was still spoken in 75% of the homes of ethnic Germans in Eldorado. She also asked what language these Germans spoke at work and with friends, most responding that they used German in at least some of their relationships. If this was the case in 1965, it suggests that in 1920 German was in quite a strong linguistic position.
The issue of filiopietism, an agenda of inflating of the importance of a specific ethnic group, is dangerous for studies that look at specific immigrant communities. With the exception of Wilhelm Lütge’s book, Deutsche in Argentinien: 1520-1980, which begins with “the first German to ever set foot on Argentine soil” and goes on to include “citizens” of the Holy Roman Empire from Flanders as Germans.
The city of Buenos Aires, where one third of Germans lived, provides historians with a diverse array of institutions to study. Ronald Newton, in his book "German Buenos Aires, 1900-1933: Social Change and Cultural Crisis", sets out to “find out what happened to one well-demarcated cultural group during a period of rapid demographic growth and apparent increase of pressures on foreigners to become Argentinized.” Newton pays particular attention to Reichsdeutsche elites in the capital city. He portrays Germans in a very different way than books on Mennonites in the interior by discussing the existence of German banks, shipping companies, and membership to the Deutscher Klub. Anne Saint Sauveur-Henn points out that although most Germans were farmers or
day labourers and that two thirds lived outside the city of Buenos Aires, a proportionately high number of Germans participated in the Argentine upper-class when compared to other immigrant groups. She writes, 12.6% of those who came between 1876 and 1909 and 18% of those who came between 1909 and 1913 were merchants compared to the 4.6% national average. The historiography deals with a mainly agricultural ethnic group that was, at the same time, far more involved with international commerce than most other immigrant groups. Additionally, while Germans joined the criollos and British in Buenos Aires in a way that Italians did not, their involvement as farmers in colonias also contrasts from the Italian and Spanish immigrant majority that worked for criollos as sojourners.
Volga German Immigration to Argentina
Upon the invitation of Catherine the Great, 25,000 Germans immigrated to the
Volgavalley of Russia to establish 104 German Villages from 1764-1767. A century after the first Germans had settled in the Volga region, Russia passed legislation that revoked many of the privileges promised to them by Catherine the Great. The sentiment in Russia became decidedly anti-German. Russia first made changes to the German local government. In 1874, a new military law decreed that all male Russian subjects, when they reached the age of 20, were eligible to serve in the military for 6 years. For the German colonists, this law represented a breach of faith. In the 1880s the Russia began a subtle attack on the German schools.
Just when Russia was abridging the privileges granted to the Germans in an earlier era, several nations in the Americas were attempting to attract settlers by offering inducements reminiscent of those of Catherine the Great. Soon after the military service bill became law, both Protestant and Catholic Volga Germans gathered and choose delegations to journey across the Atlantic to examine settlement conditions in countries like th United States, Argentina, Brazil, and Canada.
Many Catholic Volga Germans chose South America as their new homeland because the official religion in Brazil and Argentina was Catholic. The ratio of Catholics to Protestant Volga Germans in South America was 7 to 1. The opposite was true in the Volga, Protestant Volga Germans outnumbered Catholics by about 2 to 1. So in spite of the numerous stories told of Volga German immigrants being diverted to South America against their will or being sent there because they were denied entry to the US due to health reasons, Brazil and Argentina were the planned destination of many Catholic Volga German immigrants.
Under the guidance of Andreas Basgall, Volga Germans started to relocate to Argentina from Brazil in December 1877 and in January 1878 they founded the first Volga German colony of Hinojo, in the province of Buenos Aries in Argentina. Some large groups of Volga Germans on ships destined for Brazil were diverted to Argentina. These people settled in Colonia General Alvear in the province of Entre Ríos. Additional Volga Germans, some from Brazil and others directly from Russia, arrived in Argentina over the next few years. Colonia General Alvear was for many years the main settlement of Volga Germans in Argentina. Nearly 90% of the first Volga Germans that arrived in Argentina settled there.
The first census of the Volga Germans in Argentina was performed on
March 31, 1881in "Colonia General Alvear", Entre Rios Province, Argentina. A complete census index of all the villages within the colony villages can be found here [http://www.webbitt.com/volga/col_gen_alvear.txt] . This colony was composed of 6 villages: Asunción (Spatzenkutter), Concepción (Valle María), San José (Brasilera), Agricultores (Protestante), San Francisco (Pfeiffer) and Salto (Koeller). This census provides: Date of arrival in the Colony (24 groups between 22-01-1878 and 24-04-1880), Name, Nationality, Marital status, age and literacy. Five of six villages were Catholic. The single Protestant or Lutheran village was Agricultores (Protestante or Protestantendorf).
From both starting points of Colonia General Alvear and of Colonia Hinojo they spread in all directions. There are still fifteen villages in Entre Ríos populated by descendants of the original settlers, twelve of them are of Catholic origin and the remaining three, Protestant. However, most Volga Germans live in small cities like Ramírez, Crespo, Urdinarrain, Galarza and Maciá where they usually are majority. Expansion from Colonia Hinojo went westwards comprising south of Buenos Aires and the province of La Pampa; from there they reached Córdoba and Chaco. Catholic settlers in La Pampa came from south of Buenos Aires and Protestants from Entre Ríos. The former founded Santa María and Santa Teresa, the latter Guatraché, San Martín and Alpachiri. Source: "Los Alemanes del Volga" 1977 Victor Popp - Nicolás DeningUpon arriving in Argentina, the Volga German families were very happy even though they had to begin from scratch, because they were finally living in freedom. In contrast to their Volga German countrymen in Russia, they would never be exiled, they did not experience famines like those of 1921 and 1933 in the Volga region nor any mass shootings and deportation as under Stalin's regime. Finally, they were never dispossessed, they kept their land and their animalsndash something they remain proud of to this day. The immigration of Germans from Russia to Argentina kept a steady pace until the beginning of World War I. Crespo in Entre Ríos Province and
Coronel Suárezin Buenos Aires Province became the most outstanding centers of colonization, as in both cities people of Volga German descent make up the majority of the population. At the present time, the descendants of these people live disseminated all over Argentina. The numerous progeny of the original founders and the division and distribution of their properties into smaller lots forced many of them to abandon the original colonization sites and find new occupations.
The fact that Argentina appears among the most important grain producers of the world is, in part, responsibility of its citizens of Volga German origin.
In 1927 only 6,000 Volga Germans in Brazil as compared to 70,000 in Argentina.
Today the Volga-German population alone in Argentina is well over 1,200,000.
Historical Ties with Argentina and Germany
Argentina and Germany had close ties to each other since the immigration of Germans to Argentina. A flourishing trade developed between Germany and Argentina as early as the
German Unification, Germany had a privileged position in the Argentine economy. Later on, Argentina maintained a strong economic relationship with both Germany and Great Britain and supported them with supplies during World War I.
The military connection between
Argentinaand Prussiahas often been emphasized, and there can be no doubt that sympathy for Germany among the general staff in Buenos Aires contributed to establishing Argentina's policy of neutrality during the two world wars. From the point of view of Argentine strategists at the end of the nineteenth century, it was a clever move to fall in line with the strongest European war machine. Great Britain and North America became aware of the threat that Argentina's German-speakers, which was a quarter million strong, acted as the Reich's agent. There was indeed some support for NaziGermany among Argentinians, although others also viewed Hitler's rise to power and militarism with suspicion.
World War II, under Juan Perón's government, Argentina participated in establish and facilitate secret escape routes out of Germanyto South Americato SSOfficials and Nazicriminals (referred as ODESSAnetwork [Uki Goñi (2002): " [http://ukinet.com/blurb-eng.htm The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Perón’s Argentina] ". New York; London: Granta Books. ISBN 1-86207-581-6 (hardcover); ISBN 1-86207-552-2 (paperback, 2003)] ). Former Nazi officials emigrated to Argentinain order to prevent their prosecutions for war crimes, some of them lived in Argentinaunder their real names while others were given false identities. Some of the most known Nazicriminals that emigrated to Argentinaare: Adolf Eichmann, Josef Mengele, Aribert Heimand Edward Roschmannamong others.
German impact on culture in Argentina
The influence of German culture has also impacted Argentine cuisine, this trend is especially apparent in the field of desserts. The pastries known as "facturas" are Germanic in origin:
croissants, known as "medialunas" (from German Halbmond), are the most popular of these, and can be found in two varieties: butter- and lard-based. Also German in origin are the "Berliner" known as "borlas de Fraile" ("friar's tassels"), and the rolls called "piononos". The "facturas" were re-christened with local names given the difficult phonology of German, and usually Argentinized by the addition of a dulce of leche filling. That was also the case of the Kreppel, which are also called "torta fritas" in Argentina, and were introduced by German immigrants. In addition, dishes like chucrut ( sauerkraut) and many different kinds of sausage like bratwurstand others have also made it into mainstream Argentine cuisine.
Today, most German Argentines do not speak German. However, as over 1,800,000 [http://www.sippo.ch/files/news/press_06ra.pdf] Argentinians do, it has become a language heard all over the country, due to the many business started by German-Argentines and Germans alike. For this reason, it has also become an important business language: it is currently the fourth most spoken language in Argentina. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html#People]
German Colonies in Argentina
"This is a partial list"
Buenos Aires Province
* Colonia Hinojo (
5 January 1878) - originally called Colonia Santa María and called Kamenkaby the Colonists (named after a number of Volga German towns in Russia). It is situated in Olavarría Partido.
* Colonia Monte La Plata (1906)
* Colonia Nievas (1885) - called Holtzel by the colonists.
* Colonia San Miguel (
3 October 1881) - called Dehler by settlers.
* Colonia Santa Rosa (1899).
* Colonia San Miguel Arcangel (1903).
* San José (1887) - called Dehler by the colonists and situated in
Coronel Suárez Partido.
* Santa Trinidad (1887) - called Hildmann by the colonists and situated in
Coronel Suárez Partido.
* Santa María (1887) - called Kamenka by the colonists and situated in
Coronel Suárez Partido.
Sierra de La Ventana(1908)
* Tornquist (1883)
Entre Ríos Province
* Colonia General Alvear (1878), includes the following 5 hamlets::Aldea Valle María (Marienthal):Aldea Campo María (Spazenkutter):Aldea Salto (Kehler) or Santa Cruz:Aldea San Francisco (Pfeifer):Aldea Protestante
* Aldea Brasilera (1879)
* Aldea María Luisa (1883)
* Aldea San Juan (1889)
* Aldea San Antonio (1889)
* Aldea Santa Celia (1889)
* Aldea San Miguel (1899)
* Aldea Santa Anita (1900)
* Aldea San Isidro (1921)
La Pampa Province
* Colonia Santa María (1909)
* Colonia San José (1910)
* Colonia Santa Teresa (1921)
* Colonia Santa María
* Colonia San José
* Colonia Eldorado
Villa General Belgrano(1930)
* Juan José Castelli
* La Florida
anta Fe Province
Villa La Angostura
San Martin de los Andes(1898)
Río Negro Province
San Carlos de Bariloche(1895)
* Eldorado (1919)
* Puerto Rico
* Monte Carlo
Cervecería y maltería or Quilmes Beer Company is an Argentine Brewery founded in 1888 in
Quilmes, Buenos Aires Province, by Otto Bemberg, a German immigrant. His Daughter María Luisa Bembergtook over the company until she died in 1995 and her son, Carlos Miguens Bembergwas the director from 1989 until his resignation on May 17, 2006.
an Carlos de Bariloche
Like many cities settled by Germans, its development was greatly influenced by them and today the city has many examples of
Chalet-style architecture brought by German, Swiss and Austrian immigrants. It was named after Carlos Wiederhold, a pioneer who settled the region, and the city has become one of Argentina's top tourist destinations.
ome Famous German-Argentines
(this is not an exhaustive list)
Carlos Idaho Gesell(a pioneer, he founded Villa Gesellcity in 1931)
Gustavo Andrés Oberman(Soccer player)
Alberto Roemmers(founder of Laboratorios Roemmers, the most important Latin American Pharmaceutical Laboratory)
María Luisa Bemberg(Previous owner of Quilmes, film writer, director and actress)
Jorge Gottau(bishop of Añatuya, creator of "Colecta Más por Menos")
Gabriel Heinze(soccer player, currently at Real Madrid)
Pipo Pescador(humourist, actor)
Federico Lussenhoff(soccer player)
Sergio Denis(singer, actor)
Ernesto Tornquist(prominent manager, he founded the Tornquist Bank, the Tornquistcity and Tornquist Partidoin Buenos Aires Provinceamong many other contributions)
Raúl Daniel Schmidt(soccer player)
Nicole Neumann(model, TV host)
Elvio Fredrich(soccer player)
Néstor Kirchner(former President of Argentina)
Otto Krause(founder of the "Escuela Técnica" of Argentina)
Marcelo Bosch(rugby player, Biarritz Olympique)
*Francisco Bosch (rugby player,
Rodolfo Lehmann(ex governor of Santa Fe Province)
Mario Bunge(philosopher and physicist)
Pablo Henn(rugby player, US Montauban)
Guillermo Bauer(manager, proprietor of the first steam-operated flour mill in Argentina)
*Roberto Grau (Rugby player, retired)
Leonardo Mayer(tennis player)
Pablo Tschirsch(ex vice governor of Misiones Province)
Pedro Sporleder(Rugby player, retired)
Naty Hollmann(also known as "Naty Petrosino", elected "International Woman of the Year"- 2006- by the Autonomous Region of Valle d'Aosta in Northern Italy)
Haydée Tamara Bunke Bider(famous communist revolutionary)
Dietrich Meyer(he founded Sierra de La Ventanawith German settlers)
Richard Walther Darré(served as part of Hitler's Cabinet)
Arturo Eduardo Burkart(engineer)
Erich Eliskases(competitive chess player)
Carlos Wiederhold(a Pioneer, he founded the famous city of San Carlos de Barilochein 1895)
Rodolfo Freude(close advisor of Argentine President Juan Perón and served as his Director of the Information Division)
Claudio Fernando Graf(soccer player)
Enrique Rau(bishop, well known for his humanitarian labour)
Christian Bach(actress and producer of telenovelas)
Carlos Alberto Reutemann(former Formula One racing driver and a prominent politician)
Víctor Zwenger(soccer player)
Wálter Herrmann(basketball player)
Héctor Germán Oesterheld(comic writer, considered the greatest South American to work in his field).
Alejandro Guinder(prominent lawyer, he founded the "Festival del Folklore de Cosquín")
Alejandro Wiebe(better known as "Marley", TV host)
Friedrich Schickendantz(chemist and philosopher)
Roberto Arlt(short-story writer, novelist, and playwright)
Leonardo Sebastián Prediger(soccer player)
Elsa Bornemann(one of the most important Children's literature writers in Latin America)
Ernesto Ueltschi(ex governor of Mendoza Province)
Ingrid Grudke(model, TV host)
Bernarda Seitz(nun, TV host)
Juan Eduardo Esnáider(soccer player)
Fernando von Reichenbach(engineer and inventor)
Rodolfo Fischer(soccer player)
Evelyn Scheidl(ex model, TV host)
Cristian Breitenstein(mayor of Bahía Blanca)
Gabriel Schürrer(soccer player)
Carlos von der Becke(Argentine leader)
Enrique Wollmann(prominent manager, he founded "Ingenio Jujeño Ledesma"- Ledesma Sugar Estates and Refining Co. Limited- The first export sugar exploitation company in Argentina run by his descendants)
Geraldine Neumann(model, TV host)
Jorge Novak(founder of "Movimiento Ecuménico por los Derechos Humanos")
René Houseman(soccer player)
Javier Herrlein(musician, former member of group Catupecu Machu)
Mauro Gerk(soccer player)
Jorge Mayer( Roman Catholic Archbishop Emeritusof the Archdiocese of Bahía Blanca, Argentina)
Romina Mohr(journalist, Canal 9)
Johann Alemann(founder of the Argentinisches Tageblatt)
Moritz von Berne(co-founder of the Argentinisches Tageblatt)
Kat Von D- (Katherine von Drachenberg) tattoo artist [ [http://www.tv.com/kat-von-d/person/416051/summary.html] "Though her father (Rene Von Drachenberg) is of German descent and her mother (Sylvia Galeano) has Spanish-Italian roots, both her parents are native Argentinians."]
Christian Von Wernich(notorious Roman Catholic chaplain of the Buenos Aires Province Policeduring the Dirty War)
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*Saint Sauveur-Henn, Anne, “Die deutsche Einwanderung in Argentinien, 1870-1933. Zur Wirkung der politischen Entwicklung in Deutschland auf die Deutschen in Argentinien,” in Nationalsozialismus und Argentinien: Beziehungen, Einflüsse und Nachwirkungen, 1995, edited by Helger Medding, (Frankfurt: Peter Lang – Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften), 11-30.
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*Seyferth, Giralda, “German Immigration and Brazil’s Colonization Policy,” in Mass Migration to Modern Latin America, 2003, edited by Samuel Baily and Eduardo José Míguez, (Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc.), 227-244.
*Solberg, Carl, 1970, Immigration and Nationalism, Argentina and Chile 1890-1914, (Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press).
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*Young, George, 1974, The Germans in Chile: Immigration and colonization, 1849-1914, (Staten Island, New York: Center for Migration Studies New York).
* Schönwald, M.: Deutschland und Argentinien nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Politische und wirtschaftliche Beziehungen und deutsche Auswanderung 1945-1955, (= Sammlung Schöningh zur Geschichte und Gegenwart).
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