Wind engineering

Wind engineering

Wind engineering is a field of structural engineering devoted to the analysis of wind effects on the natural or built environment to protect it from possible damage. It includes strong winds which may cause discomfort as well as extreme winds such as tornadoes, hurricanes and storms which may cause widespread destruction [ [ Wind Engineering Directory] ] .

Wind engineering draws upon meteorology, aerodynamics,Geographic Information System, Wind energy, Air Pollution and a number of specialist engineering disciplines. The tools used include climate models, atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnels and numerical models. It involves, among other topics, how wind impacting buildings must be accounted for in engineering.

Wind engineering may be considered closely related to earthquake engineering and explosion protection.


Wind Engineering as a separate discipline can be traced to the UK in the 1960s, when informal meetings were held at the National Physical Laboratory, the Building Research Establishment and elsewhere.

Wind loads on buildings

The design of buildings must account for wind loads, and these are affected by wind shear. For engineering purposes, a power law wind speed profile may be defined as follows:cite book | last = Crawley | first = Stanley | title = Steel Buildings | publisher = Wiley | location = New York | year = 1993 | isbn = 0471842982 | pages = p. 272 ] cite book | last = Gupta | first = Ajaya | title = Guidelines for Design of Low-Rise Buildings Subjected to Lateral Forces | publisher = CRC Press | location = Boca Raton | year = 1993 | isbn = 0849389690 | pages = p. 49]

: v_z = v_g cdot left( frac {z} {z_g} ight)^ frac {1} {alpha}, 0 < z < z_g


: v_z = speed of the wind at height z : v_g = gradient wind at gradient height z_g : alpha = exponential coefficient
Typically, buildings are designed to resist a strong wind with a very long return period, such as 50 years or more. The design wind speed is determined from historical records using Extreme_value_theory to predict future extreme wind speeds.

Wind turbines

Wind turbines are affected by wind shear. Vertical wind-speed profiles result in different wind speeds at the blades nearest to the ground level compared to those at the top of blade travel, and this in turn affects the turbine operation.cite book | last = Heier | first = Siegfried | title = Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems | publisher = John Wiley & Sons | location = Chichester | year = 2005 | isbn = 0470868996 | pages = p. 45] The wind gradient can create a large bending moment in the shaft of a two bladed turbine when the blades are vertical. [cite book | last = Harrison | first = Robert | title = Large Wind Turbines | publisher = John Wiley & Sons | location = Chichester | year = 2001 | isbn = 0471494569 | pages = p. 30] The reduced wind gradient over water means shorter and less expensive wind turbine towers can be used in shallow seas.cite book | last = Lubosny | first = Zbigniew | title = Wind Turbine Operation in Electric Power Systems: Advanced Modeling | publisher = Springer | location = Berlin | year = 2003 | isbn = 354040340X | pages = p. 17]

For wind turbine engineering, an exponential variation in wind speed with height can be defined relative to wind measured at a reference height of 10 meters as:

: v_w(h) = v_{10} cdot left( frac {h} {h_{10 ight)^ a


: v_w(h) = velocity of the wind at height, h [m/s] : v_{10} = velocity of the wind at height, h_{10} = 10 meters [m/s] : a = Hellman exponent


The knowledge of wind engineering is used to analyze and design all high rise buildings, cable suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges, electricity transmission towers and telecommunication towers and all other types of towers and chimneys. The wind load is the dominant load in the analysis of many tall buildings. So wind engineering is essential for the analysis and design of tall buildings. Again, wind load is the dominant load in the analysis and design of all cable bridges, especially the cable bridges which contain rail lines.


*Hurricane engineering
*Wind tunnel testing
*Vibration control


External links

* [ International Association of Wind Engineering]
* [ American Association of Wind Engineering]
* [ UK Wind Engineering Society]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Wind shear — Wind shear, sometimes referred to as windshear or wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Wind shear can be broken down into vertical and horizontal components, with… …   Wikipedia

  • Wind tunnel — A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects.Ways that wind speed and flow are measured in wind tunnels: * Threads can be attached to the surface of study objects to… …   Wikipedia

  • Wind — For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). Wind, from the …   Wikipedia

  • Wind power — Wind power: worldwide installed capacity [1] …   Wikipedia

  • Wind power forecasting — A wind power forecast corresponds to an estimate of the expected production of one or more wind turbines (referred to as a wind farm) in the near future. By production is often meant available power for wind farm considered (with units kW or MW… …   Wikipedia

  • Wind speed — is the speed of wind, the movement of air or other gases in an atmosphere. It is a scalar quantity, the magnitude of the vector of motion.Wind speed has always meant the movement of air in an outside environment, but the speed of air movement… …   Wikipedia

  • Wind River Systems — Inc. Тип публичная компания (NASDAQ: WIND) …   Википедия

  • wind tunnel — /wind/, Aeron. a tubular chamber or structure in which a steady current of air can be maintained at a controlled velocity, equipped with devices for measuring and recording forces and moments on scale models of complete aircraft or of their parts …   Universalium

  • Engineering geology — is the application of the geologic sciences to engineering practice for the purpose of assuring that the geologic factors affecting the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and adequately… …   Wikipedia

  • Wind gradient — In common usage, wind gradient, more specifically wind speed gradientcite book | last = Hadlock | first = Charles | title = Mathematical Modeling in the Environment | publisher = Mathematical Association of America | location = Washington | year …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”