Infobox Weapon

caption=The FH-2000 155mm/52calibre Howitzer
service=1993 -
designer=ST Kinetics [http://www.stengg.com/upload/188COa4mAjeDLUG9OC2.pdf FH-2000 Brochure.] Retrieved on August 27, 2008.]
manufacturer=ST Kinetics [http://www.stengg.com/upload/188COa4mAjeDLUG9OC2.pdf FH-2000 Brochure.] Retrieved on August 27, 2008.]
weight=13,200 kg
length=12.90 m (firing)
part_length=8060mm (52 calibre)
width=9.73 m (firing)
cartridge=155 mm NATO
caliber=155 mm 52 calibre
rate=6 rounds per minute for 3 minutes
2 rounds per minute for 30 minutes
range=19 km (with M107) [http://www.stengg.com/upload/188COa4mAjeDLUG9OC2.pdf FH-2000 Brochure.] Retrieved on August 27, 2008.]
40 km (with ER/BB) [http://www.stengg.com/upload/188COa4mAjeDLUG9OC2.pdf FH-2000 Brochure.] Retrieved on August 27, 2008.]
max_range=40 km (with ERFB BB round)
feed=hydraulically powered flick rammer assisted loading
breech=Semi-automatic Interrupted screw with electronic rammer
carriage=6 wheeled split trail
traverse=20° left or right from centerline
engine=Air-cooled turbo charged diesel
engine_power=75 hp
speed=10 km/h
The FH-2000 or Field Howitzer 2000 was developed by Singapore Technologies for Singapore Army. It is a 155 mm/52-calibre towed howitzer gun. It fires projectiles to a maximum range of 42 kilometers using special extended range ammunition, that was field tested in New Zealand. It has a crew of eight and uses a 75 hp diesel Auxiliary power unit to give it a self propelled speed of 10 kilometers an hour movement without towing.


The FH-2000 is a development of the FH-88 gun system, which was first produced in 1983 and uses many of the same components. Development of the FH-2000 began in 1990, with the first prototype produced in 1991. The initial prototype was developed further, and acceptance tests were completed in December 1993. The gun differs in a number of ways from the earlier FH-88 most notable is the longer 52 calibre barrel as compared to the 39 calibre barrel of the FH-88.


The firing platform, when fully deployed, support the howitzer using a tripod mechanical structure. Firing loads are transmitted to the ground through this tripod, isolating the hydraulic cylinders of the platform, which provides for greater reliability. The FH2000 can be fitted with a series of sighting systems from optical to electro-optical. These sighting systems can be linked to the fire control computers. The breech mechanism is semi-automatic. The breech opens automatically during counter recoil. An electronically controlled and hydraulically powered flick rammer rams the projectile into the barrel chamber with high consistency. [cite web| url=http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/row/fh2000.htm |title = FH2000 |publisher = Federation of American Scientists]


By 1995 18 guns were deployed with the 23rd Singapore artillery battalion in three batteries of six guns. The gun has been offered for export, and the Indonesian army has took delivery of a number of these units. [ [http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showpost.php?p=2943240&postcount=825 Military Photos - View Single Post - TNI in Gallery (the New Photos)] ]

Additionally, ST Kinetics assisted Turkey in the design and manufacture of its own 155mm/52calibre "PANTER" towed howitzer system, which is understood to be based on the FH-2000 design but upgraded locally with an uprated diesel Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) of 160 hp instead of the original 75 hp, thus giving it a self propelled speed of 18km/h as compared to 10km/h for the FH-2000. [ [http://www.janes.com/extracts/extract/jaa/jaa_1295.html 155 mm/52 calibre Panter howitzer (Turkey) - Jane's Armour and Artillery] ]


On 9 March 1997, a 155mm artillery round exploded in the barrel of a FH-2000 gun howitzer during a live firing exercise conducted by the 23rd Battalion of Singapore Artillery at the artillery range of Waiouru Army Camp, near Waiouru in New Zealand. This resulted in the fatality of two full-time national servicemen of the battalion, Third Sergeant Ronnie Tan Han Chong and Lance Corporal Low Yin Tit. In addition, 12 other servicemen were injured in the incident, including a Staff Sergeant from New Zealand Army, who was acting as the New Zealand Defence Force liaison officer to the visiting SAF battalion.

A Committee of Inquiry was opened on the 17 March by the MINDEF to investigate the circumstances leading to the incident, headed by Mr Tan Gee Paw the Permanent Secretary (Ministry of Environment, Singapore). Five other members of the Committee included Mr Andrew Renton-Green, a senior official from the Ministry of Defence (New Zealand), and representatives from the Ministry of Health (Singapore), Legal Services of MINDEF, and the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF).

On 2 May 1997, the Committee submitted its findings and recommendations to MINDEF after a lengthy investigation which revealed that proper procedures had been adhered to by the artillery unit involved, and there was no human error made by any member of the said unit. Also, there was no breach of any SAF training safety regulations.

The conclusion of the Committee was that the most probable cause of this incident was a faulty fuze that was fitted to the 155 mm projectile which had been loaded into the gun howitzer that resulted in the premature detonation. Subsequently, Chartered Industries of Singapore ("CIS", parent company of Chartered Ammunition Industries) conducted a X-ray check on the same batch of fuzes from where the faulty fuze was taken from and found that approximately 1.3% of these fuzes were faulty.

Further investigations also revealed that the batch of flawed fuzes was supplied by the Chartered Ammunition Industries ("CAI") to MINDEF under a tender back in 1992, in which the "CAI" was tasked to supply fuzes manufactured according to internationally accepted military specifications. This required thorough inspections and other quality checks and control measures during and after the manufacturing process to ensure that the proper functionality of the fuzes. "CAI", in turn, sub-contracted Island Ordnance Systems ("IOS") in the United States, for the supply of these fuzes. And without informing "CAI", "IOS" had obtained the flawed fuzes from Xian Dong Fang Machinery Factory in the province of Shaanxi, People's Republic of China (PRC).

It became apparent in October 1994 that "CAI" discovers that the fuzes were manufactured at the factory in the PRC rather than it should have been in the USA. However, "CAI" did not attempt to inform MINDEF of this discovery and MINDEF was not made aware that these fuzes were manufactured in the PRC until during the course of investigations by the Committee of Inquiry.

Prior to delivery to "CAI", "IOS" had hastily issued a Certificate of Compliance "and" a Certificate of Conformance to confirm that the required military specifications had been met, even though it did not conduct those required test. In the sample test of the fuzes carried out by "CAI" later, no defective fuzes were found. Hence, based on these Certificates issued by "IOS" and sample test by "CAI", MINDEF accepted the delivery of these fuzes.

As MINDEF was tasked with the responsibility for ensuring that all types of ammunition and fuzes utilised in the SAF were safe for use, it does so by conducting acceptance testing of ammunition and fuzes either by itself or by approved contractors. So in this case, MINDEF had engaged "CAI" to provide the SAF with the fuzes. Although "CAI" agreed to witness the process of acceptance tests for the fuzes, on behalf of MINDEF, it did not witness all the acceptance tests. Also, "CAI" did not made any attempts to verify if the ordnance factory in the PRC was really capable of manufacturing the fuzes according to the required international military specifications that MINDEF had specified to it.

After accepting the findings of the committee and in an effort to stop faulty fuzes from entering SAF's inventory again in future, a few recommendations were made;
#MINDEF would completely revamp the current acceptance process,
#MINDEF would stop using all types of ammunition and fuzes from "IOS",
#MINDEF would reject ammunition and fuzes manufactured by Xian Dong Fang Machinery Factory,
#MINDEF would continue to use 155mm fuzes of this type but made by a different manufacturer.

And as an added precaution, all such type of fuzes would be sent for X-ray checks before being re-accepted for use by SAF. With these precautions in place, the SAF resumed live firing with the 155mm guns in May 1997. MINDEF would eventually went on to pursue the appropriate legal options that are available against the parties involved in the supply of the defective fuzes, namely - Chartered Ammunition Industries ("CAI") and Island Ordnance Systems ("IOS").

In accordance with existing regulations, the families of the two deceased SAF servicemen were compensated as well as the other injured servicemen. Various SAF and New Zealand personnel were also awarded, in recognition of their acts of bravery and professionalism during the incident. [cite web |title =The 155mm Gun Howitzer Chamber Explosion on 9 Mar 97 in New Zealand |url =http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/1997/jun/28jun97_nr.html |publisher =MINDEF |date =1997-06-28 |accessdate =2008-09-17 ]


*flagicon|SIN: Singapore Army (Primary user)
*flagicon|INA: Indonesian Army

ee also

*ST Kinetics
*SLWH Pegasus
*SSPH Primus


External links

* [http://www.stengg.com/CoyCapPro/detail.aspx?pdid=141 Singapore Technologies official site]
* [http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/mindef_websites/atozlistings/army/ourforces/Artillery/Equipment.html Singapore Army official site]
* [http://www.janes.com/extracts/extract/jaa/jaa_0540.html Jane's Defence info on ODE FH-88 & FH-2000]
* [http://www.janes.com/extracts/extract/jah/jah_0468.html Projectile, 155 mm: AD/EXJAM, XM867E2, FIELD ARTILLERY]
* [http://www.thefreelibrary.com/A+general+survey+of+recent+artillery+developments%3B+refurbishment+is...-a08529007 A general survey of recent artillery developments]

Video clip

*YouTube|uI8n0J55524|FH 2000 52 Calibre 155mm Field Howitzer video clip

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