Kalinga (India)

Kalinga (India)

Kalinga was a kingdom in central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Orissa, as well as some northern areas of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh. It was a rich and fertile land that extended from the river Damodar to Godavari and from Bay of Bengal to Amarkantak range in the West.

This region was scene of the bloody Kalinga War fought by the Maurya Emperor Ashoka the Great of Magadha "circa" 265 BCE.

Kharavela (IAST: Khāravela, Devanagari: खारवेल) (?209 - after 170 BCE), was greatest warrior Jain king of Kalinga, in Orissa state of India. He was responsible for the propagation of Jainism in East India but his importance in neglected in many accounts of Indian History. According to the Hathigumpha inscription near Bhubaneswar, Orissa, he attacked Rajagriha in Magadha, thus inducing the Indo-Greek king Demetrius to retreat to Mathura.

The Kharavelan Jain kingdom had a formidable maritime empire with trading routes linking it to Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo, Bali, Sumatra and Java. Colonists from Kalinga settled in Sri Lanka, Burma, and the Indonesia archipelago. Even today Indians are referred to as Keling in Malaysia because of this. Many Sri Lankan kings, both Sinhalese and Tamil, claimed decent from Kalinga dynasties.

Kalinga is mentioned in the Adiparva, Bhismaparva, Sabhaparva, Banaprava of Mahabharata so also is the conquest of Karna. Kalinga King Srutayu stated to have fought the Mahabharat war for the Kauravas. Kalinga is also mentioned as Calingae in Megasthenes' book on India - "Indica" & Megasthenes states that Magadha & Kalinga were Jain Dominant Kingdoms:

:"The Prinas and the Cainas (a tributary of the Ganges) are both navigable rivers. The tribes which dwell by the Ganges are the Calingae, nearest the sea, and higher up the Mandei, also the Malli, among whom is Mount Mallus, the boundary of all that region being the Ganges." (Megasthenes fragm. XX.B. in Pliny. Hist. Nat. V1. 21.9-22. 1. [ [http://www.mssu.edu/projectsouthasia/history/primarydocs/Foreign_Views/GreekRoman/Megasthenes-Indika.htm Megasthenes Indica] ] )

:"The royal city of the Calingae is called Parthalis. Over their king 60,000 foot-soldiers, 1,000 horsemen, 700 elephants keep watch and ward in "procinct of war." (Megasthenes fragm. LVI. in Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8-23. 11. [ [http://www.mssu.edu/projectsouthasia/history/primarydocs/Foreign_Views/GreekRoman/Megasthenes-Indika.htm Megasthenes Indica] ] )

The Kalinga script ( [http://www.ontopia.net/omnigator/models/topic_complete.jsp?tm=i18n.ltm&id=kalinga ref] ), derived from Brahmi, was used for writing. Among the offshoots, Kalinga script had the maximum resemblance with the parent script, Brāhmī and later modified to Oriya script in the beginning of the second millennium. This makes the Oriya Script as the most distinctive and least distorted script among the Indic scripts. ( [http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/ftree.jsp?id=1576] )


ee also

* Kalinga War
* Kalinga Magha
* Jaffna Kingdom

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Kalinga (disambiguation) — *Kalinga, a province in the Philippines. *Kalinga people, an ethnic group in the Philippines *Kalinga language, spoken in the Philippines. *Kalinga (India), an ancient kingdom in India and the present State of Orissa. *Kalinga, Queensland a… …   Wikipedia

  • Kalinga (Indien) — Kalinga um 265 v. Chr. Kalinga war ein Königreich im östlichen Mittelindien, das in etwa den Bereich des heutigen Orissa und die nördlichen Teile des anschließenden Andhra Pradesh umfasste. Die größte Stadt auf dem Gebiete Kalingas war… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Kalinga War — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=The Kalinga War date=265 264 BC place=Kalinga, India result=Decisive Maurya victory territory=Kalinga annexed by Maurya Empire combatant1=Maurya Empire combatant2=Kalinga commander1=Ashoka the Great… …   Wikipedia

  • Kalinga Kingdom — Kalinga forms the sea shore of Orissa state in India. Kuru king Duryodhana s wife was from Kalinga. Kalingas sided with Duryodhana in the Kurukshetra War. The founders of five eastern kingdoms, which included: Angas (east, central Bihar), Vangas… …   Wikipedia

  • Kalinga under the Mauryan — Kalinga under the MauryanDuring the era of Chandragupta and Vindusara, Kalinga enjoyed its freedom as a separate and independent state, although it is not sure whether it was ruled by one king or as a group of kingdoms or any democratic form of… …   Wikipedia

  • India — • The peninsula is separated on the north from Tibet and Central Asia by the Himalaya, Hindu Kush, and Karakoram mountains, and some lower ranges divide it from Afghanistan and Baluchistan Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. India      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Kalingä — (a. Geogr.), Zweig der Gangariden auf der Westküste von India intra Gangem; Hauptstadt: Kalinga, jetzt Cullo …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT University) — Infobox University name =KIIT University motto = established =2004 type =Education and Research Institution staff = faculty = head label =Founder head =Dr.A.Samanta head label =Chancellor head =Dr Hari Gautam students =Over 11000 undergrad =… …   Wikipedia

  • India — /in dee euh/, n. 1. Hindi, Bharat. a republic in S Asia: a union comprising 25 states and 7 union territories; formerly a British colony; gained independence Aug. 15, 1947; became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations Jan. 26, 1950.… …   Universalium

  • Kalinga Prize — The Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science is an award given by UNESCO for exceptional skill in presenting scientific ideas to lay people. It was created in 1952, following a donation from Biju Patnaik, Founder President of the Kalinga… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”