Percy Hobart

Percy Hobart

Infobox Military Person
name=Sir Percy Cleghorn Stanley Hobart
born= birth date|1885|6|14
died= death date and age|1957|2|19|1885|6|14
placeofbirth=Naini Tal, India
placeofdeath=Farnham, Surrey
placeofburial=


caption=Percy Hobart, Armoured Warfare Specialist and Military Engineer.
nickname=Hobo
allegiance=United Kingdom
branch=Royal Engineers, British Army
serviceyears=1902 - 1946
rank=Major-General
commands=2nd Battalion Royal Tank Corps Mobile Division (Egypt), later redesignated as The Armoured Division (Egypt) and 7th Armoured Division Chipping Campden Home Guard 11th Armoured Division 79th Armoured Division {later designated 79th (Experimental) Armoured Division Royal Engineers) Specialised Armour Development Establishment
unit=
battles=World War I - Neuve Chapelle - Aubers Ridge - Loos - Kut al Amara - Megiddo World War II - Normandy - Scheldt - Rhine crossing
awards= [ [http://www.unithistories.com/officers/Army_officers_H01.html#Hobart_PCS Houterman & Koppes] ] Military Cross (1915) Distinguished Service Order (1916) Companion of the Order of the Bath (1939) Knight of the British Empire (1943) American Legion of Merit (1945) Mentioned in Despatches (9 times 1915 - 1946)
laterwork=
portrayedby=

Major-General Sir Percy Cleghorn Stanley Hobart KBE CB DSO MC (14 June 1885–19 February 1957), also known as "Hobo", was a British military engineer, noted for his command of the 79th Armoured Division during World War II. He was responsible for many of the specialised armoured vehicles ("Hobart's Funnies") that took part in the invasion of Normandy and later actions.

Early life

Hobart was born in Naini Tal, India, the son of Robert T. Hobart, Indian Civil Service (ICS), and Janetta Stanley of Roughan Park, County Tyrone. His sister, Elizabeth, later married the World War II Field Marshal, Bernard Montgomery. In his youth he studied history, painting, literature and church architecture. He was educated at Temple Grove School and Clifton College, and in 1904 he graduated from the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich and was commissioned into the Corps of Royal Engineers. He was first sent to India, but during World War I he served in France and Mesopotamia (now Iraq).

In the early 1920s, Hobart volunteered to be transferred to the Royal Tank Corps. He was greatly influenced by the writings of B. H. Liddell Hart on armoured warfare. He also gained the nickname "Hobo."

In November 1928, Hobart married Dorothea Field, the daughter of Colonel C. Field, Royal Marines. They had one daughter. [ [http://www.unithistories.com/officers/Army_officers_H01.html British Army Officers 1939-1945 - H ] ] Hobart's sister Elizabeth married World War II commander Bernard Montgomery.

In 1934, Hobart became Brigadier of the first permanent armoured brigade in Britain and Inspector Royal Tank Corps. He had to fight for resources for his command because the British Army was still dominated by conservative cavalry officers.

In 1937, Hobart was made Deputy Director of Staff Duties (Armoured Fighting Vehicles) and later Director of Military Training. He was promoted to Major-General.

In 1938, Hobart was sent to form and train "Mobile Force (Egypt)" although a local general resisted his efforts. While sometimes referred to as the "Mobile Farce" by critics, Mobile Force (Egypt) survived and later became the 7th Armoured Division, famous as the Desert Rats.

World War II

Sir Archibald Wavell dismissed Hobart into retirement in 1940, based on hostile War Office information due to his "unconventional" ideas about armoured warfare. Hobart joined the Local Defence Volunteers (precursor to the Home Guard) as a lance-corporal and was charged with the defence of his home village, Chipping Campden. "At once, Chipping Campden became a hedgehog of bristling defiance", and Hobart was promoted to become Deputy Area Organiser. [Keegan, J (ed.): "Churchill's Generals", p. 247] Liddell Hart criticised the decision to retire Hobart and wrote an article in the newspaper "Sunday Pictorial". Winston Churchill was notified and he had Hobart re-enlisted into the army in 1941. Hobart was assigned to train 11th Armoured Division, which was recognised as an extremely successful task. His detractors tried again to have him removed, this time on medical grounds, but Churchill rebuffed them. Subsequently, however, he was removed from the 11th Armoured when they were transferred to Tunisia in September 1942. He was relatively old (57) for active command and he had been ill.

Once again, Hobart was assigned to raise and train a fresh armoured division, this time the 79th.

79th Armoured Division

The Dieppe Raid in August 1942 had demonstrated the inability of regular tanks and infantry to cope with fortified obstacles in an amphibious landing. This showed the need for specialised vehicles to cope with natural and man-made obstructions during and after the Allied invasion of Europe.

of his needs to build specialised tank designs.

Under Hobart's leadership, the 79th assembled units of modified tank designs collectively nicknamed "Hobart's Funnies". These were used in the Normandy invasion and were credited with helping the Allies get ashore. The 79th's vehicles were offered to all of the forces taking part in the landings of Operation Overlord, but the Americans declined all except the amphibious Sherman DD tank. [Keegan, J (ed.): "Churchill's Generals", p. 253] Liddell Hart said of him: "To have moulded the best two British armoured divisions of the war was an outstanding achievement, but Hobart made it a "hat trick" by his subsequent training of the specialised 79th Armoured Division, the decisive factor on D-Day."

The vehicles of the 79th did not deploy as units together but were attached to other units. By the end of the war the 79th had almost 7000 vehicles.

The 79th Armoured Division was disbanded on August 20 1945.

Hobart returned to retirement in 1946 and died in 1957 in Farnham, Surrey.

A barracks in Detmold, Germany was named after him. Hobart Barracks has since been handed back to the German Government and no longer functions as a barracks.

Awards and decorations

In 1943, Hobart was made Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE). After the war, he was awarded the American Legion of Merit. During his career, Hobart also became a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) and, for his actions in World War I, received the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) and Military Cross (MC). During his military career he was also mentioned in despatches 9 times. [ [http://www.unithistories.com/officers/Army_officers_H01.html#Hobart_PCS Houterman & Koppes] ]

References

*cite web| first=Hans |last=Houterman| coauthors=Koppes, Jeroen |title=World War II unit histories & officers website | url=http://www.unithistories.com/officers/Army_officers_H01.html#Hobart_PCS| accessdate=2008-01-24
*cite book
last = Keegan (ed)
first = John
authorlink =
coauthors = Macksey, Kenneth
title = Churchill's Generals
publisher = Cassell Military
date = 1991
location = London
pages = pp. 243-255
url =
doi =
isbn = 0-304-36712-5

*cite web| url=http://www.afrikakorps.org/percyhobart.htm| title=Hobart biographical notes| work= [http://www.afrikakorps.org/ Afrikacorps.org website] | publisher=Allies & Afrikakorps North African / Mediterranean Campaign Research Group| accessdate=2008-01-24

Further reading

* Delaforce, Patrick. "Churchill's Secret Weapons: The Story of Hobart's Funnies". (2007) ISBN 9781844154647

Footnotes

External links

* [http://www.remuseum.org.uk/rem_his_bio.htm Royal Engineers Museum] Royal Engineers biographies (Percy Hobart)
* [http://www.unithistories.com/officers/Army_officers_H01.html#Hobart_PCS A detailed summary of Hobart's career]


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