The end caps on a cylindrically shaped Pressure vessel are commonly known as heads.

The shape of the heads used can vary. The most common [ [http://www.juenger.com/english/index1.htm Juenger.com] ] [ [http://steelmillsoftheworld.com/products/cs/dishedheads/index.htm Dished heads] ] head shapes are:

; ; Ellipsoidal head :This is also called a 2:1 Elliptical head. The shape of this head is more economical, because the height of the head is just a quarter of the diameter. Its radius varies between the major and minor axis.; Torispherical head :These heads have a dish with a fixed radius (r1), the size of which depends on the type of torispherical head. [ [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gew%C3%B6lbter_Boden Torispherical head] ] The transition between the cylinder and the dish is called the knuckle. The knuckle has a toroidal shape. The most common types of torispherical heads are: :; Klöpper head :This is a torispherical head. The dish has a radius that equals the diameter of the cylinder it is attached to ($r_1=Do$). The knuckle has a radius that equals a tenth of the diameter of the cylinder ($r_2=0.1*Do$), hence it's alternative designation "Decimal head".:; Korbbogen head :This is a torispherical head. The radius of the dish is 80% of the diameter of the cylinder ($r_1=0.8*Do$). The radius of the knuckle is ($r_2=0.154*Do$). This shape [ [http://www.plaatijzerindustrie.com/heads/headskorb.htm|Korbogen design standard] ] finds its origin in architecture. [ [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bogen_(Architektur)#Korbbogen|Korbbogen, architectural information] ] ; Flat head : This is a head consisting of a toroidal knuckle connecting to a flat plate. This type of head is typically used for the bottom of cookware. ; Diffuser head : This type of head is often found on the bottom of aerosol spray cans. It is an inverted torispherical head. ; Conical head : This is a cone shaped head.

Heat Treatment

Heat treatment is usually required after cold forming, but not required by heads formed by hot forming:; PWHT (Post Weld Heat Treatment).; Solution Annealing.

References

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• Head (disambiguation) — In anatomy, the head of an animal is the rostral part (from anatomical position) that usually comprises the brain, eyes, ears, nose, and mouth.Metaphorically, Head may refer to a person who is a leader, supervisor or the like, such as the head of …   Wikipedia

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