- Samuel T. Wellman
name=Samuel T. Wellman
death_date=death date and age|1919|7|11|1847|2|5|mf=y
Samuel Thomas Wellman, (
February 5 1847– July 11 1919) was an American steel industrypioneer, industrialist, and prolific inventor. Wellman was a close friend of electrical pioneer George Westinghouse,cite journal | last = Wohleber | first = Curt | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = “St. George” Westinghouse | journal = American Heritage | volume = 12 | issue = 3 | pages = | publisher = | date = Winter 1997 | url = http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/it/1997/3/1997_3_28.shtml | doi = | id = | accessdate = 2007-01-25] and Charles M. Schwabof Bethlehem Steel described Samuel T. Wellman as "the man who did more than any other living person in the development of steel".cite book | last = The American Society of Mechanical Engineers | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers | publisher =The American Society of Mechanical Engineers | date =1920 | location =New York | pages = 1151-1154 | url = http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC01480830&id=ZyViriGj2BUC&pg=PA1151&lpg=PA1151&dq=%22samuel+t+wellman#PPA1151,M1 | doi = | id = ] Wellman was also president of the American Society of Mechanical Engineersfrom 1901 to 1902.cite web | last = Haywood | first = Wilfred | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = 1903 ASME Council Meeting Photo Riddle | work = | publisher = The American Society of Mechanical Engineers | date = | url = http://www.asme.org/Communities/History/ASMEHistory/1903_Council_Meeting_Photo.cfm | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-01-25]
Wareham, Massachusettsin 1847, Wellman was the son of a Nashua Iron Company superintendent. Wellman received his formal engineering training from Norwich Universityin Norwich, Vermont, and served as a corporal with the First New Hampshire Heavy Artillery during the Civil War. Shortly after the war, Wellman married Julia A. Ballard, with whom he had five children.
Career and influence on the steel industry
Wellman began his career working at the Nashua Iron Company. He was encouraged by his father to build a regenerative gas furnace for the company. Wellman did this, impressing
Carl Wilhelm Siemens, who immediately hired him to establish the first crucible-steel furnace in America. Wellman went on to improve upon the open-hearth processof steel rail production, which in turn had improved upon the Bessemer process.cite book | last = Association of American Railroads | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Quiz on railroads and railroading : 400 questions, 400 answers | publisher = Association of American Railroads | date =1942 | location =Washington, DC | pages = | url = http://www.railwaystation.com/1942/01.html | doi = | id = ] In 1869, Wellman built the first commercially successful open-hearth furnace in America at the Bay State Iron Worksin South Boston.cite book | last =Butler Jr. | first =Joseph G. | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Fifty Years of Iron and Steel | publisher = The Penton Press | date =1918 | location =Cleveland, OH | pages =70-72 | url =http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC04644682&id=1TEKAAAAIAAJ&pg=RA1-PA70&lpg=RA1-PA70&dq=%22samuel+t+wellman | doi = | id = ]
Furnaces were not Wellman's only contribution to the steel industry. He was also instrumental in the development of the Hulett unloader,cite journal | last = Snow | first = Richard F. | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Lifting Iron | journal = American Heritage | volume = 3 | issue = 2 | pages = | publisher = | date = Fall 1987 | url = http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/it/1987/2/1987_2_4.shtml | doi = | id = | accessdate = 2007-01-26] which allowed the unloading of
taconitefrom the iron oreboats of the Great Lakes, particularly on Lake Erie. In addition to improvements on the Hulett unloader, other important inventions include an open hearth charging machine and a hydraulic crane. Following an unsuccessful venture with his half-brother, Wellman later founded the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Engineering Companyin Cleveland, Ohio,cite paper | author = Lamoreaux, Naomi R., et al.| title =Financing invention during the second industrial revolution: Cleveland, Ohio 1870-1920 | version = | publisher = | date = 2004 | url = http://www.history.upenn.edu/PennEconomicForum/levenstein.pdf | format =
Partial list of inventions
* [http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT722066&id=e8dQAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=%22samuel+t+wellman Automatic bail gripping or locking device for electric cranes]
* [http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT666123&id=SNZuAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=%22samuel+t+wellman Furnace charging apparatus]
* [http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT682512&id=KnxgAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=%22samuel+t+wellman Open hearth steel furnace]
** [http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=%22samuel+t+wellman&hl=en&lr=&btnG=Search Complete list of patents on Google Scholar]
*Wellman, S. T., (1902). [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC01480830&id=_DsgCveKE84C&pg=PA78&lpg=PA78&dq=%22s+t+wellman The early history of open-hearth steel manufacture in the united states] . "Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 23," 78-98.
*Wellman, S. T., (1916). [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC02522419&id=QGpLIWmDElgC&pg=PA81&lpg=PA81&dq=%22wellman+seaver+morgan Iron and steel making] . In F. H. Newell & C. E. Drayer, (Eds.), "Engineering as a career: A series of papers by eminent engineers," (pp. 81-88). New York: D. Van Nostrand Company.
*Misa, T. J., (1995). "A Nation of Steel: The Making of Modern America, 1865-1925". Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801860520
*Sicilia, D. B. (1989). Samuel Thomas Wellman. In P. F. Paskoff, (Ed.), "Encyclopedia of American business history and biography: Iron and steel in the nineteenth century," (pp. 359-363). New York: FactsOnFile. ISBN 0816018901
* [http://www.all-craftwellman.com All-Craft Wellman Products Inc.] — Wellman's company today.
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