Ratardinae

Ratardinae

Taxobox
name = Ratardinae
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Arthropoda
classis = Insecta
ordo = Lepidoptera
subordo = Glossata
infraordo = Heteroneura
superfamilia = Cossoidea
familia = Cossidae
unranked_familia = Ditrysia
subfamilia = Ratardinae
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision =
*"Ratarda" Moore, 1879
**="Shisa" Strand, 1917
*"Callosiope" Hering, 1925
*"Sumatratarda" Kobes and Ronkay, 1990

Taxonomy and systematics

Ratardinae is a small subfamily of moths formerly placed in its own family Ratardidae and related to (and often included within) Cossidae. There are three genera, one quite recently described (Kobes and Ronkay, 1990). One species, "Shisa" excellens" was originally placed in Lymantriidae (Owada, 1993; Holloway, 1998: 9). The moths are large with rounded wings and strongly spotted wing patterns, and "pectinate" antennae. The relationships of this group to other Cossoidea needs reassessment, once suitable samples are available, with molecular data [http://www.leptree.net/statusmatrix/showall.php] .

Distribution

There are about thirteen, relictually distributed species restricted to Southeast Asia, occurring in Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, northeastern Himalayas and Taiwan (Holloway, 1986: 41-42; Heppner and Wang, 1987; Heynderycx, 2003).

Behaviour

The adults are very rarely found, feeble- flying and occasionally are attracted to light but more likely to be found flying by day (Holloway, 1986: 41-42).

Biology

The biology is unknown (Edwards et al. 1999: 193-194) but it has been suggested based on female morphology that like the probably related Metarbelinae they might feed in bark (Holloway et al., 1986: 42).

Conservation

These large moths are so incredibly rarely found and their habitats under such massive threat from large-scale conversion of rainforest in South-East Asia that their conservation status should be seriously considered and dedicated surveys conducted to assess their distribution and biology. One species ("Ratarda melanoxantha") is probably protected by virtue of its occurrence in Mount Kinabalu National Park on Borneo where it was found once (Holloway, 1986) .

External links

* [http://web.archive.org/web/20060116092931/http://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-1/ratardidae/ratardidae.php The Moths of Borneo]
* [http://internt.nhm.ac.uk/jdsml/research-curation/projects/lepindex/list.dsml?searchPageURL=index.dsml&UserID=&UserName=&sort=SCIENTIFIC_NAME_on_card&Current_superfamily=Cossoidea&Current_family=Cossidae&Current_subfamily=Ratardinae&Current_tribe=&recLimit=30 NHM Lepindex]
* [http://www.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life//insecta/lepidoptera/ditrysia/cossoidea/cossidae/ratardinae/index.html Markku Savela's website]

References

*Edwards, E.D., Gentili, P., Horak, M., Kristensen, N.P. and Nielsen, E.S. (1999). The cossoid/sesioid assemblage. Ch. 11, pp. 181-195 in Kristensen, N.P. (Ed.). "Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies". Volume 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches / Handbook of Zoology. A Natural History of the phyla of the Animal Kingdom. Band / Volume IV Arthropoda: Insecta Teilband / Part 35: 491 pp. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.
*Heynderycx, J. 2003. Les Ratardinae. "Lambillionea;;, 103(1): 133-134.
*Heppner J.B. and Wang, H.Y. 1987. A rare moth, "Ratarda tertia" Strand (Lepidoptera: Ratardidae), from Palin Taiwan. "Táiwa-n she(nglì bówùgua(n bànniánka-n (Táiwa-n she(nglì bówùgua(n bànniánka-n)", 40: 91-94.
*Holloway, J.D. (1986). "The Moths of Borneo: Key to Families: Families Cossiae, Metarbelidae, Ratardidae, Dudgeonidae, Epipyropidae and Limacodidae". "Malayan Nauture Journal", 40: 1-166.
*Holloway, J.D. (1998). "The Moths of Borneo: Families Castniidae, Callidulidae, Drepanidae and Uraniidae". "Malayan Nauture Journal", 52: 1-155.
*Kobes, L.W.R. and Ronkay, L. (1990). "The Ratardidae of Sumatra", "Heterocera Sumatrana", 6: 79-100.
*Owada, M. (1993). The systematic position of "Shisa excellens" (Lepidoptera and Ratardidae). "Japanese Journal of Entomology", 61(2): 251-260.

Provisional list of species (based on Lepindex)

"Callosiope banghaasi" Hering, 1925
"Ratarda flavimargo" Hering, 1925 [http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-1/images/plate4/11.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-1/ratardidae/ratardidae.php&h=119&w=201&sz=17&hl=en&start=1&tbnid=elOSfcoRk9my5M:&tbnh=62&tbnw=104&prev=/images%3Fq%3DRatarda%26gbv%3D2%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG]
"Ratarda formosana" Matsumura, 1921
"Ratarda furvivestita" Hampson
"Ratarda guttifera" Hering, 1925
"Ratarda javanica" Roepke, 1937
"Ratarda marmorata" Moore, 1879
"Ratarda melanoxantha" Hering, 1925
"Ratarda mora" Hering, 1925
"Ratarda tertia" Strand, 1916
"Ratarda monstrosa" Strand, 1916
"Ratarida excellens" (Strand, 1917) (originally in "Shisa")
"Sumatratarda diehlii" Kobes and Ronkay, 1990.


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