Ernest Hogan

Ernest Hogan

Ernest Hogan (born Ernest Reuben Crowders, 1865 - 1909) was the first African American entertainer to produce and star in a Broadway show ("The Oyster Man" in 1907) and helped create the musical genre of ragtime.

A native of Bowling Green, Kentucky, as a teenager Hogan worked in traveling minstrel shows as a dancer, musician, and comedian. In 1895 Hogan published several popular songs in a new musical genre, which he named ragtime. [ [ Ernest Hogan Ragtime Originator] biography website, researched by Ray Buckberry, accessed January 11, 2007.] These hit songs included "La Pas Ma La" and "All Coons Look Alike to Me". The success of this last song created many derogatory imitations, known as "coon songs" because of their use of racist and stereotypical images of blacks.

While Hogan was considered one of the most talented performers and comedians of his day,"Tap Roots: The Early History of Tap Dancing" by Mark Knowles, McFarland & Company, 2002, ISBN 0786412674, pages 119-20.] his contribution to the racist "coon song" craze haunted him. Before his death, he stated that he "regretted" using the racial slur in his song.

Early years

Born Ernest Reuben Crowders in the Shake Rag District of Bowling Green, Kentucky, in 1865. As a teenager, he traveled with a minstrel troupe called the Georgia Graduate, where he performed as a dancer, musician, and comedian. During this time he changed his name to Hogan because "Irish performers were in vogue." Hogan likely performed in blackface during this time, as he sometimes did later in his career.

Creation of ragtime genre

It was also during this time that Hogan created a comedy dance called the "pasmala", which consisted of a walk forward with three steps back. In 1895, he wrote and published a song based on this dance called "La Pas Ma La". The song's chorus was:

:Hand upon yo' head, let your mind roll back,:Back, back back and look at the stars:Stand up rightly, dance it brightly:That's the Pas Ma La.

Hogan followed this song with the massive hit "All Coons Look Alike to Me". Hogan was evidently not the originator of the song's lyrics, having appropriated them after hearing a pianist in a Chicago salon playing a song titled "All Pimps Look Alike to Me"."Ragging It: Getting Ragtime into History (and Some History into Ragtime)" by Loring White, iUniverse, 2005. xiv, 419 pp. ISBN 0-595-34042-3, pages 99-100] Hogan merely changed the words slightly, substituting the word "coon" for "pimp""Ragtime: A Musical and Cultural History" by Edward A. Berlin, 2002, ISBN 0595261582, page 35.] and added a cakewalk syncopation to the music, which he had heard being played in back rooms and cafes."Dvorak to Duke Ellington: A Conductor Explores America's Music and Its African American Roots" by Maurice Peress, Oxford University Press, 2003, page 39.] The song eventually sold over a million copies.

While the song's overall message isn't racist, the use of the racial slur "coon" infuriated many African Americans. Some Black singers made a point of removing the word "coon" from the song whenever they sang it. In addition, the success of this song created many imitations, which became known as "coon songs" because of their use of extremely racist and stereotypical images of blacks. In Hogan's later years he evidently felt shame and a sense of "race betrayal" for the song.

The controversy over the song has, to some degree, caused Hogan to be overlooked as one of the originators of ragtime, which has been called the first truly American musical genre. Hogan's songs were among the first published ragtime songs and the first to use the term "rag" in their sheet music copy. While Hogan made no claims to having exclusively created ragtime, fellow Black musician Tom Fletcher said Hogan was the "first to put on paper the kind of rhythm that was being played by non-reading musicians."When the ragtime championship was held as part of the 1900 World Competition in New York, semifinalists played Hogan's "All Coons Look Alike to Me" to prove their skill. ["The Music of Black Americans: A History" by Eileen Southern, W W Norton & Co Inc, 1983, page 317.]

As Hogan said shortly before he died,

ee also

* Ragtime
* Coon song
* African American music
* African American musical theater

External links

* [ Ernest Hogan at Yale University's Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library]


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