Tevaram

Tevaram

The Tevaram (Tamil: தேவாரம் "Teva" means "God", "aram" means "garland" [cite web
url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/2000/12/02/stories/13021103.htm
title=Classical Notes: Musical people
publisher=The Hindu
accessdate=2007-01-10
] ) denotes the first seven volumes of the "Tirumurai", the twelve-volume collection of Tamil Saivite devotional poetry. All seven volumes are dedicated to the works of the three most prominent Tamil poets (known as "Nayanars") - Campantar (or "Sambanthar" etc.), Appar and Cuntarar (also "Sundarar" etc.). The first two of these are believed to have lived around the 7th century AD, the last in the 9th century AD. During the Pallava period these three travelled extensively around Tamil Nadu offering discourses and songs characterised by an emotional devotion to Shiva and objections to Vaishnavism, Jainism and Buddhism. [cite book|title=Social and Cultural History of Tamilnad (to AD 1336)|author=N.Subramaniam|publisher=Ennes Publication Udumalpet 642 128 |year 1975|p 277] .

In the tenth Century AD, during the reign of Rajaraja Chola I, a collection of these songs was found abandoned in the Chidambaram temple, along with other religious literary works, and collated by Nambiyandar Nambi.

All the songs in the Tevaram (called "pathikam" in Tamil) are believed to be in sets of ten. The hymns were set to music denoted by "Panns" and are part of the canon of the Tamil music. They continue to be part of temple liturgy today. [cite web
url=http://www.templenet.com/glossary3.html
title=Glossary
publisher=TempleNet
accessdate=2007-01-10
] [cite web
url=http://www.indiantemples.com/abode_initial.html
title=Abodes of Shiva
publisher=Indiantemples.com
accessdate=2007-01-10
]

References

External links

*cite encyclopedia | ency=Encyclopædia Britannica | edition=15 | year=2005 | article= [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=20710 Carnatic music]
* [http://www.hindu.com/fr/2006/12/29/stories/2006122902530800.htm Similar in both spirit and intonation]
* [http://www.hinduonnet.com/2000/12/02/stories/13021103.htm Classical Notes: Musical people]
* [http://www.kamakoti.org/hindudharma/part14/chap16.htm The Authenticity of Sthala Puranas (HinduDharma: Puranas)]
* [http://www.hindu.com/fr/2007/01/05/stories/2007010502520800.htm The poetic charm of Tamizh isai]
* [http://www.shaivam.org/gallery/audio/sat_pp2.htm Tevaram Songs]
* [http://www.thevaaram.org/index.php Dharmapuram Adhinam's web site giving the transliteration / translation of the 12 Tirumurais]
* [http://www.ifpindia.org/Digital-Tevaram-Kaninit-Tevaram.html Digital Tevaram, an Indology CD released by the French Institute of Pondicherry, has the English translation of all Tevarams (1 to 7 Tirumurais)]
* [http://www.linguist.jussieu.fr/~chevilla/tevaram.htm Sample translations from the Digital Tevaram CD issued by the French Institute of Pondicherry]


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