- Emergency circulating notes
Emergency circulating notes were currency printed by the
Philippine Commonwealth Government in exileduring World War II. These "guerrilla pesos" were printed by local government units and banks using crude inks and materials. Due to the inferior quality of these bills, they were easily mutilated.
Second Philippine Republicunder Jose P. Laureloutlawed possession of guerrilla currency and declared a monopolyon the issuance of money and anyone found to possess guerrilla notes could be arrested or even executed.
Apayao was one of the sub-provinces which comprised the
Mountain Provinceduring World War II. In the remote sub-province of Apayao, Deputy Governor Milton Ayochok assumed, the authority granted by Philippine President Manuel L. Quezonto print emergency currency. On September 11, 1942, the Apayao Provincial Board authorized the printing of currency to provide for the budget for fiscal year 1942-1943. A Currency Committee was formed composed of Deputy Governor Ayochok as Chairman, with Deputy Treasurer M. Medina and Deputy Auditor F.A. Enciso as members.
First Issue (1942)
The First Issue was printed from hand-engraved plates. Records state that a total of
PHP105,495 was issued. Printing probably took place at Kabugao, its provincial capital in conjunction with the printing of the Cagayanfourth issue.
econd Issue (1943)
The Second Issue was produced by
mimeograph. Official records of this issue were captured by the Japanese. Known serial numbers would indicate that this issue equaled or possibly exceeded the previous issue and was probably intended for the fiscal year 1943-1944 budget. Bohol
May 22, 1942, Japanese occupation forces established garrisons at Tagbilaran, the capital and Guindulman where they operated manganese mines. On January 9, 1943, resistance officers and provincial officials who had not surrendered established a "free" government with Conrado D. Marapao as Governor. Eventually its jurisdiction was established over 34 of the 35 municipalities. Just prior to the surrender, President Quezon had authorized Bohol to issue PHP 150,000 in emergency currency. This authority was the basis for printing currency to finance the free government and the resistance force. The Currency Board consisted of Provincial Auditor Dalmatio Ramos as Chairman, with Provincial Fiscal Jose C. Borromeo and Acting Provincial Treasurer Doreteo Toledo as members. In June 1943, radio contact was established with President Quezon who authorized an additional PHP 200,000. In September, President Quezon authorized an additional One Million Pesos. The printing took place at the Municipality of Carmen. Notes were printed in black on manila paperof varying thickness, except for a few hundred notes on white paper. Serial numbers were applied in two applied in two different styles of type.
The portrait printed on the Negros Occidental bill is that of
Manuel L. Quezon, the first Filipino president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under U.S. occupation rule.
Japanese government-issued Philippine fiat peso
* [http://www.bsp.gov.ph/ Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - Philippine Central Bank Website]
* [http://philmoney.blogspot.com/ Philippine Money - Coins and Banknotes]
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