Water supply and sanitation in Germany
- Water supply and sanitation in Germany
Source: Metropolitan Consulting Group: VEWA - Vergleich europaeischer Wasser- und Abwasserpreise, 2006, p. 7 of the executive summary [http://www.bgw.de/files/pdf/0.1_resource_2006_7_14.pdf]
Concerning sanitation, unequalized tariffs are by far the highest in Germany at 111 Euro per year. Equalized costs net of subsidies are, however, highest in England and Wales with 138 Euro, followed by France (122 Euro), Germany (119 Euro) and Italy (85 Euro).
Metering is widespread in Germany and almost universal for single family homes. However, many apartments do not have their own meter, so that households living in apartments where only the consumption of the entire house is metered have little financial incentive to conserve water.
Investments and Financing
In 2005 investments stood at 7.8 billion Euros, including 5.5 billion Euros for sanitation and 2.3 billion Euros for water supply. [ [http://www.bdew.de/bdew.nsf/id/DE_Profile_of_the_German_Water_Industry/$file/Profile_German_Water_Industry_2008.pdf Branchenbild 2008] , p. 56-57 ] Financing is predominantly through debt and ultimately through user fees. Commercial debt is issued directly by the municipalities in the form of municipal bonds (Kommunalanleihen) or by utilities. The development Bank KfW also provides long-term credit for up to 30 years (Kommunalkredit) for municipal investments, including water supply and sanitation.
According to the professional associations of the sector there is no investment backlog (Investitionsstau).
*EU water policy
* UBA Federal Environmental Agency – technical agency under the Ministry of Environment [http://www.uba.de UBA]
* DVGW - An association of professionals and utilities in gas distribution and water supply that assists the federal government in setting technical norms, providing training and advances the professional development of its members [http://www.dvgw.de/ DVWG]
* DWA - An association of professionals in water and sanitation and water resources management that assists the federal government in setting technical norms, providing training and advances the professional development of its members [http://www.dwa.de/ DWA]
* VKU - The association of municipal electricity, gas, water and sanitation utilities [http://www.vku.de VKU]
* International Benchmarking-Network for water and sanitation(IB-net) [http://www.ib-net.org/ IB-Net]
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