- Long-range Wi-Fi
Long-range Wi-Fi is used for low-cost, unregulated point-to-point connections, as an alternative to cellular networks, microwave or satellite links. The use of the term "long range wifi" as depicted on this page for extreme ranges is not in any way endorsed by the Wi-Fi Alliance and is not in any way tested or certified by the
Wi-Fi Alliancefor interoperability or performance.
Since the development of the Wi-Fi radio standard, great leaps in the technology's abilities have been made. In one area, range, Wi-Fi has been pushed to an extreme, and both commercial and residential applications of this Long Range Wi-Fi have cropped up around the world. It has also been used in experimental trials in the developing world to link communities separated by difficult geography with little or no connectivity options.
*Provide coverage to a large office or business complex or campus.
*Establish point-to-point link between large skyscrapers or other office buildings.
*Bring Internet to remote construction sites or research labs.
*Bring Internet to a home if regular cable/DSL cannot be hooked up at the location.
*Bring Internet to a vacation home or cottage on a remote mountain or on a lake.
*Bring Internet to a yacht or large seafaring vessel.
*Share a neighborhood Wi-Fi network.
The [http://tier.cs.berkeley.edu/wiki/Home Technology and Infrastructure for Emerging Regions] (TIER) project at University of California at Berkeley, in collaboration with Intel, utilizes a modified Wi-Fi setup to create long-distance point-to-point links for several of its development projects in the developing world. This technique, dubbed Wi-Fi over Long Distance (WiLD), is used to connect the Aravind Eye Hospital with several outlying clinics in
Tamil Nadustate, India. Distances range from five to over fifteen kilometers with stations placed in line of sight of each other. These links allow specialists at the hospital to communicate with nurses and patients at the clinics through video conferencing. If the patient needs further examination or care, a hospital appointment can then be scheduled. Another network in Ghanalinks the University of Ghana, Legon campus to its remote campuses at the Korle bu Medical School and the City campus; a further extension will feature links up to 80km apart.
Increasing range in other ways
802.11 non-standard equipment"
pecialized Wi-Fi channels
In most standard Wi-Fi routers, the three standards, A, B and G, are enough. But in long-range Wi-Fi, special technologies are used to get the most out of a Wi-Fi connection. The 802.11-2007 standard adds 10 MHz and 5 MHz OFDM modes to the 802.11a standard, and extend the time of cyclic prefix protection from 0.8 µs to 3.2 µs, quadrupling the multipath distortion protection. Some commonly available 802.11a/g chipsets support the OFDM 'half-clocking' and 'quarter-clocking' that is in the 2007 standard, and 4.9 GHz and 5.0 GHz products are available with 10 MHz and 5 MHz channel bandwidths. It is likely that some 802.11n D.20 chipsets will also support 'half-clocking' for use in 10 MHz channel bandwidths, and at double the range of the 802.11n standard.
802.11nworking became available in many routers in 2008. This technology works by using multiple antennas to target one or more sources to increase speed. In tests, the speed increase was said to only occur over short distances rather than the long range needed for most point to point setups. [cite web
title =Wireless Networks
accessdate =2007-01-05 ]
Power increase or receiver sensitivity boosting
Another way of adding range uses a power amplifier. Commonly known as "range extender amplifiers" these small devices supply usually around ½ Watt of power to the antenna. Such amplifiers may give more than five times the range to an existing network. Every 6dB gain doubles range, and in the case of the Linksys
WRT54Gthe [http://radiolabs.com/products/wireless/wireless-range-extender.php RadioLabs 2.4 GHZ range extender amplifier] increases the stock power of the WRT54G from +18dBm (63 mW) to +27dBm (500 mW), a 9dB (8x) increase - enough to double the range. [cite web
title =2.4 GHz Wireless Range Extender Amplifier
accessdate =2007-01-05 ] These power amplifiers offer a tempting enhancement that can easily be added to existing networks in places where law allows. Aside from legal issues (significant in some countries), they however may cause interference and channel swamping to other WiFi users. The alternative techniques of selecting a more sensitive WLAN adapter (some are quite "deaf") and more directive antenna should also be considered.
Higher gain antennas and adapter placement
Specially shaped antennas can be used to increase the range of a Wi-Fi transmission without a drastic increase in transmission power. High gain antenna may be of many designs, but all allow transmitting a narrow signal beam over distances of several kilometers, often nulling out nearby interference sources. A popular low-cost home made approach increases WiFi ranges by just placing standard USB WLAN hardware at the focal point of modified parabolic cookware (see [http://www.usbwifi.orcon.net.nz/rvwifi.jpg"www.usbwifi.orcon.net.nz/rvwifi.jpg"] ). Such "WokFi" techniques typically yield gains of 12-15dB over the bare system- enough for line of sight (LOS) ranges of several km and improvements in marginal locations. N.B. Although often low power, cheap USB WLAN adapters suit site auditing and location of local signal "sweet spots". As USB leads incur none of the losses normally associated with costly microwave coax & SMA fittings, just extending a USB adapter (or AP etc) up to a window, or away from shielding metal work and vegetation, may dramatically improve the link.(See [http://www.usbwifi.orcon.net.nz/wifiledge.jpg"www.usbwifi.orcon.net.nz/wifiledge.jpg"] )
802.11protocol stacks can also be modified to make them more suitable for long distance, point-to-point usage, at the risk of breaking interoperability with other Wi-Fi devices and suffering interference from transmitters located near the antenna. These approaches are used by the TIER project (see [http://tier.cs.berkeley.edu/docs/wireless/large_wild.pdf "Rethinking Wireless in the Developing World"] ).
Obstacles to long-range Wi-Fi
Methods that stretch the range of a Wi-Fi connection may also make it fragile and volatile, due to mundane problems including:
Obstacles are among the biggest problems when setting up a long-range Wi-Fi. Trees and forests degrade the
microwavesignal, and rolling hills make it difficult to establish line-of-sight propagation.
In a city, buildings will impact integrity, speed and connectivity. Steel frames partly reflect radio signals, and concrete or plaster walls absorb microwave signals significantly, but sheet metal in walls or roofs may efficiently "reflect" Wi-Fi signals, causing an almost total loss of signal.
2.4 GHz interference
Microwave ovens in residences dominate the 2.4 GHz band and will cause "meal time perturbations" of the noise floor. There are literally hundreds of other sources of interference that aggregate into a formidable obstacle to enabling long range use in occupied areas: baby monitors, wireless cameras, remote car starters, DECT and residential wireless phones, Bluetooth products to name just a few.
Due to the intended nature of the 2.4 GHz band, there are many users of this band, with as many as 2 or 3 devices per household. By its very nature, "Long Range Wifi" connotes an antenna system which can see many of these devices, which when added together produce a very high noise floor, whereby no single signal is usable, but nonetheless are still received. The aim of a long range system is to produce a system which over-powers these signals and/or uses directional antennas to prevent the receiver "seeing" these devices, thereby reducing the noise floor.
Several of the devices on the market are not legal in the UK. The UK appears to have particularly specific and strict regulations regarding the 2.4 GHz band. In many other countries, anything with 100mW EIRP is considered "Fair Game". However, in the UK, there are extremely strict and specific regulations as to what can and cannot be used and sold on 2.4 GHz. The most notable difference in the UK is that Video Senders can only have a 10mW EIRP, and must dissipate the transmitted signal across 20 MHz. Full details can be found on the Ofcom website, under [http://www.ofcom.org.uk/radiocomms/ifi/tech/interface_req/uk2030.pdf IR2030]
More information about 2.4 GHz Interference can be found on the article
2.4ghz Interference, which lists the different types of appliances on 2.4 GHz, and how they interfere with each other.
Longest unamplified Wi-Fi link
279 km Wifi link [PDFlink| [http://www.wilac.net/descargas/documentos/EnlaceAguila_Baul_EN.pdf Long Reach Link] |6452 KiB] achieved by [http://eslared.org.ve/ Fundación Escuela Latinoamericana de Redes] (Latin American Networking School).
Pico del Águila- El Baúl Link.
*frequency: 2412 MHz
*IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi), channel 1, bandwidth 22 MHz
*Wireless routers: Linksys
WRT54G, OpenWrtfirmware at el Águila and DD-WRTfirmware at El Baúl.
*Parabolic dish antennas were used at both ends, recycled from satellite service.
*At El Aguila site an aluminum mesh reflector convert|2.74|m|ft|abbr=on|sigfig=1 diameter, center fed, at el Baúl a fiberglass solid reflector, offset fed, convert|2.4|by|2.74|m|ft|abbr=on|sigfig=1. On both ends the feeds were 12 dBi Yagis.
*Linksys WRT54g routers fed the antennas with short LMR400 cables, so the effective gain of the complete antenna is estimated at about 30 dBi.
*As far as we know, this is the longest range attained with this technology, improving on a previous US record of convert|125|mi|km achieved last year in U.S. The Swedish space agency attained convert|310|km|mi|abbr=on but using 6 watt amplifiers to reach an overhead stratospheric balloon
* [http://www.wirelessnetworkproducts.com/index.asp?PageAction=Custom&ID=21 How to fix WiFi Range problems / General notes on increasing wireless range]
* [http://home.iitk.ac.in/~chebrolu/docs/2006-dgp-meas.pdf Long-Distance 802.11b Links: Performance Measurements and Experience]
* [http://www.ab9il.net/wlan-projects/wifi1.html Building long distance wireless networking antennas]
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