- Juba II
Juba II ("Iuba" in Latin; "Ιóβας (Ιóβα)" or "Ιουβας" in Greek)Roller, Duane W. (2003) "The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene" "Routledge (UK)". p. 1-3. ISBN 0-415-30596-9.] or Juba II of Numidia (reigned 25 BC - 23 AD) was a king of
Numidiaand then later moved to Mauretania. His first wife was Cleopatra Selene II, the last Ptolemaic Monarch and daughter to Greek PtolemaicQueen Cleopatra VIIof Egypt and Roman triumvir Mark Antony.
Juba II was the only child and heir to King
Juba I of Numidia. His mother is unknown. In 46 BC, his father committed suicide as he was defeated by Julius Caesar(in Thapsus, North Africa) and Numidia became a Roman Province. His father was an ally to the Roman General Pompey. Juba II claimed to be a descendant to the sister of General Hannibal(Scol. Lucan, "Pharsalia" 8.287).
Juba II was brought to
Romeby Julius Caesar and took part in Caesar’s triumphal procession. In Rome, he learned Latinand Greek, became romanized and was granted Roman citizenship. Through dedication to his studies, he is said to have become one of Rome's best educated citizens, and by age 20 he wrote one his first works entitled "Roman Archaeology". He was raised by Julius Caesar and later by his great-nephew Octavius (future Emperor Caesar Augustus). Juba II while growing up, accompanied Octavius on military campaigns, gaining valuable experience as a leader. He fought alongside Octavius in the battle of Actiumin 31 BC. Throughout the years, Juba II and Octavius became lifelong friends.
Restored to the throne
Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC. Juba II established Numidia as an ally of Rome. Juba II would become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry
Cleopatra Selene II, giving her a large dowryand appointing her queen.
When they moved to Mauretania, they renamed their new capital to "Caesaria" (modern
Cherchell, Algeria). The city was named in honor of Augustus. The construction and sculpture projects at Caesaria and another city Volubilis, display a rich mixture of Egyptian, Greek and Roman architectural styles.
Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. The Kingdom of Mauretania was of great importance to the Roman Empire. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean, particularly with
Spainand Italy. Mauretania exported fish, grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpurairesto re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process. [C.Michael Hogan, "Mogador: Promontory Fort", The Megalithic Portal, ed Andy Burnham, November 2, 2007 [http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=17926] ] Tingis, a town at the Pillars of Hercules (modern Strait of Gibraltar) became a major trade centre. In Gades, (modern Cádiz) and Carthago Nova (modern Cartagena) Spain, Juba II was appointed by Augustus as an honorary Duovir. A Duovir was a chief magistrate of a Roman colony or town, most probably involving with trade and was also a Patronus Colonaie.
The value and quality of Mauretanian coins became distinguished. The Greek
historian Plutarchdescribes him as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar(a grandson of Augustus), as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean.
In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler and Juba II died in 23. Juba II was buried alongside his first wife in their
mausoleum. Ptolemy then became the sole ruler of Mauretania.
Marriages and children
* First marriage to Greek
Ptolemaicprincess Cleopatra Selene II(40 BC-6). Their children were Cleopatra of Mauretaniaa possible daughter, Ptolemy of Mauretania(1 BC-40) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born 5).
* Second marriage to princess of
Cappadocia Glaphyra. Glaphyra’s first husband was prince Alexandros (a son of King of Judea Herod the Great), Alexandros was executed in 7 BC. Glaphyra married Juba II either in 6 or 7. Glaphyra fell in love with King of Judea Herod Archelaus(another son of Herod the Great). Glaphyra ended her brief marriage to Juba II and divorced him to marry Herod Archelaus. Juba II had no children with Glaphyra.
Juba II wrote a number of books in Greek and Latin on history, natural history, geography, grammar, painting and theatre. His guide to Arabia became a bestseller in Rome. Only fragments of his work survived. He collected a substantial library on a wide variety of topics, which no doubt complemented his own prolific output.
Pliny the Elderrefers to him as an authority 65 times in the "Natural History" and in Athens, a monument was built in recognition of his writings.
Pliny the Younger, Juba II sent an expedition to the Canary Islandsand Madeira. [O'Brien, Sally and Sarah Andrews. (2004) "Lonely Planet Canary Islands" "Lonely Planet". p. 59. ISBN 1-74059-374-X.] Juba II had given the Canary Islands that name because he found particularly ferocious dogs ("canaria") on the island.
Among his discoveries there is a medicinal plant nowadays called "Euphorbia regisjubae" ("‘King Juba's euphorbia’", a
speciesof the spurgefamily). The Latin name of the Chile Cocopalm or Honey Palm is "‘Iubaea chilensis‘", called after him due to his interests and writings on botany. The sap of the Chile Cocopalm is used in the making of wine and sugar.
* [http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/1744.html Juba II] king of
Mauretania- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9044063/Juba-II Juba II]
* Microsoft Encarta 2002 Encyclopaedia
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