Short Shetland

Short Shetland

infobox Aircraft
name = S.35 Shetland
type = reconnaissance flying-boat
manufacturer = Short Brothers



caption =
designer =
first flight = 14 December 1944
introduced =
retired =
status =
primary user =
more users =
produced =
number built = 2
unit cost =
variants with their own articles =

The Short Shetland was a British high-speed, long-range, four-engined flying-boat built by Short Brothers at Rochester, Kent for use in the Second World War. It was designed to meet an Air Ministry requirement (defined in Specification R.14/40) for a very-long range reconnaissance flying boat. The design used the company's experience with large scale production of the Short Sunderland.

Design and development

Specification R.14/40 replaced an earlier specification R.5/39 which was an up-armed revision of specification R.3/38 for a faster flying boat than the Short Sunderland. Shorts, among others, had tendered a design for R.5/39 but the Ministry had changed their minds about the need for an immediate replacement for the Sunderland. R.5/39 had considered a maximum weight up to 84,000 lb - R14/40 allowed for a maximum takeoff of nearly 100,000 lb (45 tonnes) with a bomb load of 20,000 lb. The projected engines were the Bristol Centaurus radial or the Napier Sabre inline.

Shorts and the other British manufacturer of big flying boats, Saunders-Roe (Saro), were involved in the competitive tender for R.14/40; Saro proposed the Saunders-Roe S.41. Rather than selecting either company's design, the Air Ministry asked the companies to submit a combined project, stipulating the terms under which the work was to be shared between them. The detailed design was performed by Saro, their experience with the "Shrimp" contributing to the hull shape, as well as building the wing. Shorts built the hull and tail and did the final assembly.

Variants

hort S.35 Shetland I

The first prototype and what was to be the only Shetland I (Serial Number "DX166") first flew on 14 December 1944, piloted by Shorts' Chief Test Pilot John Lankester Parker as captain and Geoffrey Tyson as co-pilot [Barnes and James, p. 393.] . The aircraft flew without gun turrets (its role having been revised to that of unarmed transport before its maiden flight [Barnes and James, p. 394.] ); it was delivered to the Marine Aircraft Experimental Establishment (MAEE) at Felixstowe in October 1945. Testing indicated satisfactory water handling but the stabilising floats were mounted too low and did not offer sufficient clearance for takeoffs with maximum load. [Green 1962, p. 110.] Flight testing revealed problems with the harmonization of controls and marginal longitudinal stability. Before the trials were complete, the aircraft burnt out at its moorings on 28 January 1946 as a result of a galley fire.

hort S.40 Shetland II

With the end of the war, the second prototype (Serial Number "DX171") was completed as a civil transport and designated Shetland II. It was designed to carry 70 passengers but only 40 seats were fitted. Registered "G-AGVD," the Shetland II's first flight took place on 17 September 1947. After trials, it was delivered to Short's factory at Belfast, but no orders were forthcoming and it performed only limited flight trials before being scrapped in 1951.

Specifications (S.35)

aircraft specification
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?= prop
crew= 11
capacity= 70
length main= 110 ft
length alt= 33.5 m
span main= 150 ft 4 in
span alt= 46.75 m
height main= 38 ft 8in
height alt= 11.7 m
area main= 2,636 sq ft
area alt= 244.9 m2
empty weight main= 75,860 lb
empty weight alt= 34,410 kg
loaded weight main= 120,000 lb
loaded weight alt= 54,431 kg
max takeoff weight main= 125,000 lb
max takeoff weight alt= 56,700 kg
engine (prop)=Bristol Centaurus VII
type of prop= radial piston
number of props=4
power main= 2,500 hp
power alt= 1864 kW
max speed main= 263 mph at 6,500 ft
max speed alt= 424 km/h
range main= 4,410 miles (3,835 nmi)
range alt= 7,100 km
ceiling main= 17,000 ft
ceiling alt= 5,180 m
climb rate main=
loading main=
power/mass main=

guns=(as planned)
**Three turrets, each with two 0.5 in Browning machine guns in nose, mid-upper and tail positions
bombs=Up to lb to kg|4000 of bombs or depth charges

ee also

aircontent
related=
similar aircraft=
sequence=Short Empire - Short Sunderland - Short Stirling - Short Shetland - Short Sturgeon - Short Solent
see also=
lists=

References

Notes

Bibliography

* Barnes, C.H. and James, D.N. "Shorts Aircraft since 1900". London, Putnam, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-819-4.
* Bowyer, Michael J.F. "Aircraft for the Royal Air Force: The "Griffon" Spitfire, The Albemarle Bomber and the Shetland Flying-Boat". London: Faber & Faber, 1980. ISBN 0-571-11515-2.
* Buttler, Tony. "British Secret Projects: Fighters & Bombers, 1935-1950." Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing Ltd., 2004. ISBN 1-85780-179-2.
* Green, William. "Warplanes of the Second World War, Volume Five: Flying Boats". London: Macdonald & Co., 1962.
* Jackson, A.J. "British Civil Aircraft since 1919, Volume 2 (2nd Edition)". London: Putnam, 1973. ISBN 0-370-10010-7.

External links

* [http://www.seawings.co.uk/shetplanpage.htm Plans of Prototype 1 and civil version (1946)]
* [http://www.seawings.co.uk/shetgal.htm Pictures gallery]
* [http://www.britishaircraft.co.uk/aircraftpage.php?ID=379 British Aircraft Directory entry]
* [http://www.jaapteeuwen.com/ww2aircraft/html%20pages/SHORT%20S35%20SHETLAND.htm Description and image at British Aircraft of WWII]


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