Shinty (derived from the
Scottish Gaelic"sinteag" [http://www.uscamanachd.org/documents/MacLennan_Shintysplace.pdf] although it is referred to as camanachd or iomain in modern Gaelic) is a team sportplayed with sticks and a ball. Shinty is now played almost exclusively in the Highlands of Scotland, and amongst Highland migrants to the big cities, but it was formerly more widespread, reaching as far as England.
Whilst comparisons are often made with
field hockey, the two sports have several important differences. In shinty, a player is allowed to play the ball in the air and is allowed to use both sides of the stick. The stick may also be used to block and to tackle, although a player may not come down on an opponent's stick, this is defined as hacking. A player may tackle using the body as long as this is shoulder-to-shoulder as in football.
The sport was derived from the same root as the Irish game of
hurling, and is similar to bandybut has developed different rules and features. The old form of hurling played in the northern half of Ireland resembled shinty more closely than the standardised form of hurling of today. Like shinty it was commonly known as camánacht and was traditionally played in winter.
Shinty is also one of the forebears of
ice hockey: in 1800, Scottish immigrantsto Nova Scotiaplayed a game on ice at Windsor. In Canada, informal hockey games are still called shinny.
Scottish Lowlands, it was formerly referred to as "common"/"cammon" ("caman"), "cammock" (from Scottish Gaelic"camag"), " knotty" and various other names.
The objective of the game is to play a small ball into a goal, or "hail", erected at the ends of a 140 to 170-yard-long pitch. The ball is played using the "caman", a stick of about 3 1/2 ft in length. Unlike the Irish "camán", it has no blade. The "caman" is traditionally made of wood and must not have any plate or metal attached to it. The "caman" would be made from any piece of wood with a hook in it, hence "caman", from the Scottish Gaelic, "cam" meaning bent or crooked.
A team consists of 12 players, including one goalkeeper. A match is played over two halves of 45 minutes. With the exception of the keeper, no player is allowed to play the ball with his hands. There are also variants with smaller sides, with some adjustments in the field size and duration of play.
A player may play the ball in the air and is allowed to use both sides of the stick. The stick may also be used to block and to tackle, although a player may not come down on an opponent's stick, this is defined as hacking. A player may tackle using the body as long as this is shoulder-to-shoulder as in football.
A player may only stop the ball with the stick, the chest, two feet together or one foot planted on the ground. Only the goalkeeper may use his hands and then only with an open palm. He may not catch it. Playing the ball with the head constitutes a foul whether intentional or not.
Fouls result in a free-hit, which is indirect unless the foul is committed in the penalty area, commonly referred to as "The D". This results in a penalty hit from 20 yards.
A ball played by a team over the opposing bye line results in a goal hit from the edge of the D, a ball played by a team over their own results in a corner. A ball hit over the sideline results in a shy. A shinty shy involves the taker tossing the ball above his head and hitting the ball with the shaft of the caman. The ball must be directly overhead when struck to be legal.
Gaelic settlers from
Irelandbrought the sport of hurling to Scotland, where the game was played as such until the 14th century, albeit with a different caman from the Irish one. A similar game was played on the Isle of Manknown as cammag, a name cognate with camanachd.
The game was traditionally played through the winter months, with New Year's Day being the day when whole villages would gather together to play games featuring teams of up to 80 a side, players often using any piece of wood with a hook as a caman. In
Uist, stalks of seaweedwere put to use due to a lack of trees. Modern camans are made from several laminates of ash which are glued and cut into shape, although one-piece camans were still commonplace until the early 1980s.
In 1887, a historic game was played between
Glenurquhart Shinty Cluband Strathglass Shinty Clubin Inverness. This game was attended by thousands of people and was a major milestone in developing a set of common rules. This fixture was to be repeated on 12th January 2007 in Inverness as the opening centrepiece of the Highland 2007celebrations in Scotland, but was postponed due to a waterlogged pitch.
The modern sport is governed by the
Camanachd Association( Scots Gaelic: Comann na Camanachd). The association came into being in the late Victorian erain as a means of formulating common rules to unite the various different codes and rules which even differed between neighbouring glens, in this the sport shares similarities with other sports which became organised around this time. The first meeting of the Camanachd Association was held in Kingussiein 1893.
Competitions and Organisation
Shinty is traditionally divided into two administrative and playing areas, the North and the South. The geographic divide is at
Ballachulish, with all clubs south of here being classified as South teams, although most are still northerly in comparison to most of Scotland.The long distances to travel have meant that the game in the South and in the North habitually have slightly different approaches to the game. The South considered to be more skilful in comparison to the more physical style propagated in the North. The South also has a slightly differing formation which is more commonly used than that of the North.
Clubs compete in various competitions, both cup and league, on a national and also North/South basis. Whilst the top premier league is played on a national basis the lower leagues are based on geography. Many clubs run second teams which also compete in these leagues against clubs with only one senior side.
In League shinty, Kingussie has been dominant for the past 20 years and, according to the
Guinness Book of Records2005, is world sport's most successful sporting team of all time, winning 20 consecutive league championships and going 4 years without losing a single fixture in the early 1990s. This incredible, unmatched run of dominance was ended on 2nd September by ancient rivals Newtonmore who defeated Oban Camanachd2-0 to ensure that Kingussie could not catch the team at the top of the league. However, Newtonmore were unable to usurp their neighbours as champions, as the first post-Kingussie champions were confirmed as Fort William who sealed the title on 30th September 2006 having won their games in hand over Newtonmore. Kingussie regained the title in 2007.
League shinty has always been seen as being less important than cup shinty and the premier national competition remains the Scottish Cup or the Camanachd Association Challenge Cup (the
Camanachd Cupfor short) which has also been dominated by Kingussie in the last twenty years. The other dominant team in shinty history has been Newtonmore, Kingussie's near neighbours. Strangely these two teams only met in the Camanachd Cup Final for the first time in 1984 as before 1983 the competition was designed to ensure the final was a North/South affair.
2007final was played at the Bught Park, Invernessbetween Fort William and Inveraray, the 100th Cup Final being held as part of Highland 2007and Fort William winning 3-1.
In 2003, shinty clubs voted for a trial period of two years of a summer season from March to October, with a view to moving permanently to summer shinty if the experiment was judged to be a success. Despite opposition from the "Big Two",
Kingussieand Newtonmore, and other small groups in the game, an EGM in November 2005 voted by an overwhelming majority (well over the required two thirds) to make summer shinty the basis upon which the game would proceed.
Although Camanachd Cup finals and internationals have been shown over the years,
2006marked the first ever regular TV deal for shinty with matches being shown on the BBC Sports show Spòrs.
In August 2006, the Camanachd Association decided to move its main offices to
Invernessfrom Banavienear Fort William. This move was met with consternation by many in the sporting community with calls for an extraordinary general meeting. The EGM was held but a vote of no confidence in the Board of Directors was voted down. In 2006 the Association appointed its first female chief executive Gill McDonald.
hinty outside the Highlands
Predominantly a Highland game, there are also clubs to found in Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Perth and even
London. University Shintyis a popular section of the sport, with almost all Scotland's main universities possessing a team. Historically, Glasgow University, Aberdeen University and Edinburgh University have vied for supremacy but in recent years, Strathclyde University, Robert Gordon's Collegeand Dundee University have risen to prominence. It is also played in the British Armywith The Highlanders Shinty Clubkeeping alive the tradition of the game being played in the Forces. London Camanachdis the only shinty club in England. They do not play league matches but do compete at present in the Bullough Cup. They have historically been attached to the South District. They went into abeyance in 1992 but were reconstituted in 2005. They played the first officially recognised shinty match outside Scotland in 80 years on Saturday 22nd July 2006 against the Highlanders. Shinty was previously played widely in England in the 19th Centuryand early 20th century and Nottingham Forest F.C.was established by Shinty Players. [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/top-football-clubs-played-host-to-scots-sport-of-shinty-415259.html]
Shinty is also spreading to
North America, though originally played in the 18th and 19th century by Scottish immigrants, the sport died out. However, it is enjoying a revival, teams such as Northern California Camanachd Club(NCCC), Houston Camanachd Club(HCC), Washington Camanachd Club(WCC), Dunedin Camanachd(Florida) play at Highland Gamesand other venues across the USA. There is interest in forming clubs in Utah, Arizona and North Carolina, however the Morro Bay Shinty Club went inactive as of April 2007. See also Shinty in North America.
In recognition of shinty's shared roots with hurling, an annual international between the two codes from Scotland and Ireland is played on a home and away basis using composite rules. In recent years the Irish have had the upper hand but the Scots won the fixture narrowly in 2005 and again in 2006, this time at
Croke Park, Dublinalbeit with the Irish fielding weaker players from the second tier Christy Ring Cup.
Composite rules Shinty/Hurling
Sport in Scotland
* [http://www.shinty.com The Camanachd Association]
* [http://www.skyecamanachd.com/news.html Skye Camanachd - News from across the shinty world]
* [http://www.bounci.tv Bounci - Streaming Videos and Online Community]
* [http://keepingoutofthed.blogspot.com The World's First Shinty blog, Keeping Out Of The D]
* [http://catastrophicinversion.blogspot.com/2007/12/shinty-season-review.html The World's Second Shinty blog, Catastrophic Inversion]
* [http://bounci.tv/files/folders/850/download.aspx The Making of a Caman]
* [http://sport.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=410 The Scotsman Shinty News]
* [http://www.uscamanachd.org/documents/USCamanachdSourcebookV1.pdf How to Start a Shinty Club]
* [http://www.funtrivia.com/playquiz.cfm?qid=214648 Shinty Trivia Quiz]
* [http://www.zkz86.dial.pipex.com/shinty/index.htm Spot The Shinty Ball]
* [http://www.scottishsport.co.uk/othersports/shinty.htm A list of Shinty Stadiums in Scotland]
* [http://www.uscamanachd.org/documents/MacLennan_Shintysplace.pdf Hugh Dan's Shinty and its place in World Sport]
* [http://www.thebloodisstrong.com/phpBB/viewtopic.php?t=991&sid=629da720fd04ca1f2d23e20d2bc1c992 Discussion on the playing of Shinty in the Lowlands]
* [http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/this_britain/article1431145.ece Shinty was played at Stamford Bridge and Old Trafford]
* [http://www.geocities.com/shintyclub Glasgow University Shinty Club]
* [http://www.blueworldexplorer.co.uk/extreme_sports/shinty.htm/ A Quick Guide to Shinty]
* [http://www.norcalshinty.com/ Northern California Camanachd, America's First Shinty Team]
* [http://www.flickr.com/search/?w=37054885%40N00&q=shinty Photographs of shinty games in action]
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