Saint Anne's Guild

Saint Anne's Guild

Saint Anne's Guild was one of the medieval religious guilds or associations of the City of Dublin, Ireland. It is most noteworthy for the considerable documentary evidence extant and for having survived as a Catholic lay association until the eighteenth century, despite severe persecution by English Anglican authorities.

The Guild maintained Chantry Priests in St. Audoen's Church, Dublin

Fr. Myles Ronan, in his essay 'Dublin Medieval Gilds', found in 'The Irish Ecclesiastical Record', Volume XXVI, July to December, 1925, states:


The germ of the gild was simple, the feeling of brotherhood and neighbourliness, and the impulse to mutual help among private men and women. The gilds filled up gaps in the social fabric not provided for by the systems of agricultural life or of military defence, but harmonizing with the efforts of the Church. If they desired to devote the rent of land or houses to purposes of education or religion they had to obtain leave from the Crown. Gilds, naturally, fall into two classes, the social-religious and the [trade guilds] , the latter being of two kinds, merchant gilds and gilds of crafts. Although there were gilds of both classes in the thirteenth century, it was in the period between the fourteenth and the sixteenth century that they really abounded, many of them being set up not long before the change of religion. It was then that they received the [royal charters] enabling them to hold property and devote some of it to the upkeep of a gild [chapel] and [chaplain] . This was a corporate imitation of the foundation of the [chantry] , which, we have seen was made by private and wealthy individuals. On the religious side, the two classes of gilds had much in common…

Foundation and laws

…Gilds, as we have said, were of two classes, trade and religious. Though in religious matters they had many things in common, yet the primary object of each class was fundamentally distinct. The Religious Gilds were fraternities or bodies of lay men and women formed in many parishes for exclusively religious purposes. The only gilds of which any information has come down to us, in the diocese of Dublin, are: St. Anne’s, in the church of St. Audoen; St. Sythe in the church of St. Michan; Corpus Christi, in St. Michael’s on the Hill; St. George’s, in George’s Lane; St. Mary’s in Balrothery; St. Mary’s, at Mulhuddart; St. Canice’s, at Hollywood, North Dublin, and St. John the Baptist’s, in St. John’s Church, Fishamble Street…

…The records of these gilds have disappeared, with the exception of those of St. Anne’s, and a few belonging to St. George’s. It is to the former, however, that we owe all our information as to the working of the medieval religious gilds of Dublin.

t. Anne’s Gild

Its records form portion of what is known as the ‘Halliday Collection’ in the [Royal Irish Academy] . The original deeds would appear to have numbered at least 831, as, amongst the 160 still extant, one of them is numbered 831. But with this sonitary exception, the others are numbered between 1 and 600. Besides these there is a volume of abstracts of 841 documents make in 1772 by James Goddard, clerk of the gild, among the Gilbert MSS. Although this gild was not founded until 1430, some of the title-deeds of its subsequently acquired property extend as far back as the year 1285, and as late as 1740. What became of all the rest of it would be idle to conjecture, but inasmuch as this gild acquired extensive property in the city and county of Dublin and elsewhere, which, owing to a suspicion that the trusts impressed on it were not carried out, subjected its affairs, after the change of religion, to unpleasant inquiry by the [Protestant] Church and Government, it became safer for those interested to conceal or destroy their incriminating documents. To Launcelot Buckeley, [Protestant] [Archbishop of Dublin] , may be attributed the preservation of the deeds in the Academy. James I and Charles I tried to pry into the working of the gild and its alleged illegal procedure, while a too great eagerness in searching into the affairs of the fraternity was assigned as one of the causes that hastened the end of that ill-fated minister of Charles, Wentworth, Earl of Strafford. We shall deal with this point later.

t. Audoen's

St. Audoen, Bishop of Rouen, died in 683; and as his memory was venerated among the Anglo-Norman settlers in Dublin, their church here was fittingly dedicated to him as their patron. The date of its erection does not appear, but it must have been between 1181 and 1200. Needless to say there is no mention of it in the churches confirmed to St. Laurentius O’Toole by Pope Alexander III in 1179. The first time we hear of it is during the episcopate of his successor, John Comen, the first Anglo-Norman Archbishop (1181-1212). He conferred the church, from the year of its foundation, on the convent of Grace Dieu, near Lusk. The first date in connexion with it is that of circa 1200, in a deed signed by ‘Turstin, parson of St. Audoen’s’. In this church stood a chapel to St. Mary the Virgin, and there were also altars dedicated to St. Catherine, St. Nicholas, St. Thomas, and St. Clare.

This condition remained until the year 1430, when Henry VI, by letters patent, 16th December, with the assent of Richard Talbot, [Archbishop of Dublin] , Justiciar of Ireland, in homage and reverence of God, the B.V.M., and St. Anne, for the pious intentions of the said prelate and others, noblemen and commoners, granted licence to found a chantry and endow a chapel there in honour of St. Anne, together with a gild of same, of men and women. The gild was to support six chantry priests, one to celebrate in a chapel that was to be build and dedicated to St. Anne, one in the Lady Chapel, and one at each of the four altars above named, for the souls of the king, founders, and brethren, etc., and it was allowed to hold lands and premises to the value of 100 marks (£66 13s. 4d. = about £1,000 pre-war) yearly for their maintenance. (This means, of course, that the yearly revenue of the property might amount to the 100 marks.) St. Anne’s Chapel was erected at that south side of the nave, running parallel to it as far as the chancel. The south wall was taken down, and six new pillars formed five bays, which caused the chapel to become the south aisle of the church. Later, this aisle was continued eastwards by the erection of the Portlester Chapel, and thus was formed a church of ‘two aisles’.

Devotion to St. Anne

It will be useful to narrate briefly how St. Anne came to Dublin. Devotion to her began in the East in the fourth century, with her feast day on 25th July. The first church in her honour was consecrated in Constantinople in 710. Her cult, meanwhile, had spread in southern and northern France with the preaching of the early missionaries, and [Brittany] , especially, became its great centre. St. Anne d’Auray at once became a famous shrine, and although it was destroyed in the seventh century, the devotion was preserved by the pious fisherfolk. With the invasion of the Anglo-Normans the devotion to St. Anne came to Dublin, and no more fitting church could be selected for her shrine and special cult than the church of St. Audoen, the Bishop of Rouen. So popular became the devotion in Dublin that in a Provincial Council 21st March, 1352, under Archbishop de St. Paul, the festival of St. Anne on 26th July was ordered to be celebrated as a double, and the people to refrain from labour, and attend their parish churches. Thus, it became a holiday of obligation, along with the festivals of the Conception of the B.V.M., the Translation of St. Thomas à Becket, and St. Katherine, virgin and martyr. It was further ordered that curates, on pain of greater excommunication, if they have not the proper services for these days, are to procure them within six months. Meanwhile, on St. Anne’s Day, the service for St. Mary Magdalene is to be used mutatis mutandis. It is worthy of note how the geasts of the Conception of the B.V.M. (8th December) and St. Anne were thus linked together as principal feasts. When the religious gild was to be erected in 1430 in St. Audoen’s, it was natural to find its patron in St. Anne.

Chantry priests

Each of the six chaplains of this gild had a special altar or chapel assigned to him on appointment, where he was to celebrate daily for its members and in a general way to serve in choir. It would seem that even on ‘feryall’ days, there was a Missa Cantata, the Mary Mass, at which they were bound to assist, and on Fridays at the Jesus Mass. Of course, they were also bound to assist at all services on principal feasts and holidays. They had the assistance of the two clerks attached to the church, one of whom sang and played at the organs, at all those services, for which he received a special annuity of £8 (=£120 pre-war), and half profit of the ‘bells and church cake’. The other clerk was likewise appointed to assist the chaplains by singing and reading in choir daily at divine service at a salary of 7 marks. Every second week he was to cause fire and water to be brought, to ring the bells, and to wait on the parish priest or curate in visiting sick folk. He was granted the other half profit of the church cake, bells and ‘mind’ money.

Separate chambers or sets of apartments were allotted to the chantry priests, and the average yearly salary pertaining to their office appears to have been the sum of 8 marks (=£80 pre-war). It may be remarked that the senior clerk received about £40 (pre-war) a year more than any of the chaplains. The priests were to have a competent table (or board) provided – ‘a table honestly found, according to the degree of a priest’. Their tenure of office was for life, ‘as well in sickness as in health, as far forth as God would give grace and bodily health’. In each indenture the gild bound itself to find all ornaments necessary for singing Mass – bread, wine, wax, chalice, Mass-book, vestments, etc., while the priests, on their parts, agreed to sing at all divine services, so far as their learning and ‘conyng’ extended, binding themselves not to be absent without special leave, and not to relinquish their posts except on promotion to benefices. The chambers for the chaplains were allotted in houses near the church which had been bequeathed to the gild from time to time. One of these, the ‘chamber of St. Mary’s chaplain’, is mentioned as standing by the stile at the corner of Audoen’s Lane and Cornmarket. It was not until 1534 that they were accommodated in a single building, which became known as the College. This had been known as Blakeney’s Inns, with turret and garden, conveyed to the gild by James Blakeney, and occupied the site on which the present Catholic St. Audoen’s now stands. Special apartments were assigned to each chaplain, and were known as the ‘second tower of Blakeney’s Inns’; the ‘fourth chamber’, etc.; and the gild undertook their repair and maintenance. In their spare moments the chaplains planted hedges round the college, constructed buildings, and built ‘St. Anne’s Workhouse’, which was evidently a special workshop for the men employed by the gild in connexion with its property in the neighbourhood.

That some educational institution was connected with this parish of St. Audoen in old times is evident from a Will of 1381, by which Joan Douce left 2s. to the four scholars in St. Audoen’s church, and one Codde bequeathed 4 marks for a two-years’ exhibition in the schools. These may have been for the choristers attached to the church. Although these date from before the erection of the gild, it is not at all unlikely that the gild chaplains took some hand in the teaching of those boys.

As in the case of the trade gilds, the observance of an obit was a matter of supreme importance for the chantry priests of St. Anne’s. No doubt, special remembrance was given to each departed brother or sister on the ‘mind’ or anniversary day, and very likely a book of obits was kept, as in the case of Christ Church. But we find in St. Anne’s records special deeds drawn up by the merchants and others, who could afford the expense, by which the donor bestowed on the gild certain premises in the city, or outside, on condition that the priests maintained on St. Anne’s ‘Rent’ should, yearly, in St. Audoen’s, on a certain Sunday, observe same, with solemn Mass, by plain song, or, as it is again called, Requiem Mass by note, with five ‘pryketts’ (torches) of wax burning. And on the Saturday previous, the Dirige was to be sung, with same wax lights, and, according to the ‘old laudable custom’, the city bellman (polictor) was to go to the old station-places appointed in the city to ‘bid’ a Pater Noster and Ave for the said deceased. Along with these instructions, mention was sometimes made of the burial of the deceased in one of the chantry chapels of St. Audoen’s, beneath the ‘groundsill’. It does not appear that every brother or sister of the gild had the right to be buried in a chantry chapel. Benefactors of the gild and those instituting special chantry priests, in addition to the gild chaplains, to celebrate for them during the year, certainly had the right, as they left specific directions as to which chapel – St. Clare, St. Mary, etc. – they wished to be buried in.

The gild property had accumulated considerably between 1430 and 1558, through bequests and donations. Houses, rents, lands in the city and suburbs, and throughout the country, were made over to it by deeds, many of which are in the gild collection. The gild sometimes carried on a kind of co-operation in commerce. In one of the deeds (No. 1 in Calendar) a certain Robert Dovedall, knight, gave 100 marks (=£1,000 pre-war) to the master and wardens of the gild, to be disposed of in merchandise, iron and salt being mentioned as the probably commodities. The trustees were to give security for the trust, and out of every 12d. increase or profit yearly on the 100 marks’ over and above the 1½d., to go to the merchant in charge of the commodities for the time being. The goods were thus given out on loan to some of the brothers or sisters of the gild, who were not to date part with these goods over the sea, ort of this land. The grantor’s cousins or allies were to receive preference as to the loan, provided they gave the usual security. But if the master and wardens preferred to invest the money in lands in a ‘good part of the country’ they were to be at liberty to do so. This system of loaning out various commodities to members was also in being in the religious gild of St. Mary at Cambridge, the members paying for them at the end of the year, at the same time paying increment in the nature of interest. Thus, it is evident that the religious gilds combined some of the advantages of our present co-operative and tontine societies, as well as Bona Mors associations.

Unfortunately, no other records of the other religious gilds have come down to us, with the exception of the original charters of St. Sythe’s and St. George’s.

The Property of the Gilds

The religious life of the gilds continued in all its medieval splendour, in the full flush of faith, and the outward manifestation of deep religious feeling.

The gilds were so numerous and collectively so important in England, being spread all over the land, and were so much feared as wealthy agencies supporting ‘superstitious uses’, that in the last year of [Henry VIII] and the first year of [Edward VI] two Acts were passed which suppressed them all, and appropriated their property to the Crown. The trade gilds has so much in common with the religious gilds that they were included in the inquiry which preceded the Acts; but they escaped the same fate because their character as mercantile and trade companies was clear. Though we have no record to tell the fate of the religious gilds of Dublin, yet we have abundant records to show that St. Anne’s Gild continued at least down to the year 1740. it remained unchallenged and unquestioned practically down to the year 1611, when commenced the earliest of those proceedings which, in the seventeenth century, on the part of the Crown, the Irish Council, some public bodies, and private individuals, began to be directed against it. They Attorney-General required the master and wardens to answer by what warrant they exercised certain liberties in the chapel of St. Anne in St. Audoen’s. They pleaded their charter, and their uninterrupted exercise of it. Though the Attorney-General replied that such a plea was not sufficient in law to preserve their lands, etc., from being seized into the King’s hands, yet there the matter remained for another twenty-five years. Similar proceedings were taken in regard to St. Sythe’s Gild and its original charter endorsed as having been produced in Court. But no conclusion was come to.

In 1634 a very serious attempt was made by Rev. Thomas Lowe to compel the income of the gild property to be devoted to the purposes and service of St. Audoen’s Church. Now that the Protestant religion was established there was no longer a necessity for a chantry, with priests to celebrate for the souls of the founders and brethren. Accordingly he pleaded that the ancient parish church, with which it had for a couple of centuries been connected, should receive the benefit of the gild endowments, which were gradually being converted, he asserted, to superstitious as well as private uses. He affirmed that the fraternity was bound to support a chanting minister (to which post he claimed to be appointed) and six vicars. He ingeniously evaded the question of the celebration of Mass, which was a fundamental object of the gild. ‘A chanting minister and six vicars’ were not contemplated in the charter, and no revision of the charter had been made. The gild, however, pleaded that its entire revenue was but £74 14s. yearly, which sum was expended on the parson, organist, choristers, and singing men. The commission appointed to look into the question, on the other hand, reported that the annual rents amounted to £289 1s. 7d. Again the question was postponed. The commission that had been appointed consisted of John Bramhall, Bishop of Derry, Sit James Ware, and two others. The inquiries were to be preliminary to an order for the establishment of six ‘priests’ who were to be in possession of the college house belonging to the fraternity, which had been granted away for a term of years. The college and founds were to be restored, and the Rev. Thomas Lowe preferred : new brethren to be appointed, and a principal room in the college reserved for meetings of the gild, and as a place for safely keeping its muniments. It is important to give here the account of the transaction from materials collected by Sir James Ware: –

The Foundation of St. Anne’s Guild in Dublin : with the Cheats of that Fraternity found out.

King Henry the Sixth granted a Patent for the Fraternity of St. Anne’s Guild, bearing date the sixteenth of December, in the ninth year of his reign. This Fraternity continued, notwithstanding the dissolution of Abbeys, Priories, and other Religious Houses, in King Henry the Eighth’s reign: consisting of a body corporate, and a master, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, not being questioned until, or about, the year of our Lord 1634. Upon the sixteenth of February, 1634: Thomas Lee, Preacher of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and Vicar of both Cathedrals in Dublin, brought John Edmonds, an attourney in Dublin, unto Lancelot Buckeley, Archbishop of the same, who delivered unto him the said Archbishop a bundle of Papers, and an old Rent Roll Book concerning the Guild of St. Ann, by St. Audoen’s Church in Dublin, amongst which Papers was a Parchment bull bearing date the third year of Pope Pius Quintus, which Bull Thomas Lee translated as followeth:-

PIUS QUINTUS, Servant of the Servants of God, etc.To all our beloved Brethren and Sons of the Catholique Mother Church of Rome, now dwelling or inhabiting within the Dominions of England and Ireland, greeting: We will and command yee the Trustees, Masters, Overseers and Brethren of our Hospitals, Guilds, and other of our Religious Convents within those Dominions of England and Ireland, for to set, let, and to make sale of all our said sacred Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments, of this kind or nature unto none, saving unto those of the true Antient and Apostolic Faith, viz., of the Mother Church of the blessed Apostle of St. Peter of the See of Rome, now under our jurisdiction, and owing ours and our successors supremacy. Further, we will and command ye to observe this our Mandate, especially that those said lands, tenements, and hereditaments might be, and remain in the custody of Catholicks, and not of Hereticks, in case of our happy Restoration unto all our Ecclesiastical Livings and Privileges due unto the holy See of St. Peters of Rome. We further taking into our Sacred consideration, the compulsions and slaveries of Catholicks living under Heretical Powers, paying Taxes, Tythes, and Pence unto Heretical Clergies, contrary to our Will and Commands. We, therefore, absolve ye, until ye by the Prayers, Tears, and Assistance of the Mother Church be redeemed and freed. Provided that our Mandates be fulfilled always by ye and your posterities, viz., To pay unto all such Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Priors, Deans or other Sacred Orders, shewing commission from Us, or from our Vicars, such Tythes, Sums, and Perquisits that ye can spare, and is conscionable, as testimonies of your due reverence unto Us, and the holy Mother Church of St. Peters at Rome. Also to have a Parish Prriest in every Parish, he to be of the Catholick Faith, and to pay unto them their just Tythes and Perquisits, as formerly: So ye observing these our Mandates and Precepts, we sprinkle our Benediction on ye and your children, with the blessing of the Holy Undivided Trinity, of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, of the Heavenly Host of Archangels, Angels, Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Saints, and Holy Martyrs. Amen. From St. Peters at Rome, 4th Ide May, anno ter Pontivic.

The Archbishop delivering up these papers unto Thomas, Lord Viscount Wentworth, then Lord Deputy of this kingdom, his Lordship issued out a Commission under the Great Seal, nominating John Lord, Bishop of Derry, Sir James Ware, Knight, John Atherton, Doctor in Divinity, and Richard Fitzgerald, Esq., for to inspect into the Records touching the said Guild, the commission beareth date the eleventh of February undecimo anno Caroli Regis, etc.

March 3 1636. John Edmond declared before the Archbishop of Dublin, John, Bishop of Derry, and Sir James Ware, Knight, that these papers were found amongst several papers sometimes belonging unto Richard and Christopher Fagan, who had been formerly Alderman and Mayor of the City of Dublin: who held part of the houses and lands of St. Ann’s Guild.

Search being made upon this commission, by the Commissioners therein named, they returned a large discovery of divers houses within the City of [Dublin] , also without the walls thereof: And likewise several towns and farms in the counties of Dublin and [Meath] , which return bears date upon the 20th of June, 1637, several parcels since were discovered, but all lay dormant since the recal of Thomas Wentworth Earl of Strafford from the Government of Ireland.

These four things following hastened this loyal Peer’s death, viz.: His reforming of Ireland unto our English station; the procuring of subsidies by a Parliament held at Dublin during his Government; the setting up the Star-Chamber; and his eagerness in searching into this Guild. All combined and contrived chiefly by the Roman Catholicks party of this kingdom, who were glad to get some persons of quality for to be their leaders, whom this peer had chastised during his government of this kingdom.

Three Aldermen (viz., Carroll, James, and Malone) of Dublin, Brethren and Tenants of the said Guild, were great enemies unto this noble peer.

The names of the Brethren and Tenants of this Guild when the Commission was granted as aforesaid, viz. :- Sir Richard Brown, Knight; Patrick Brown; Plunket, Alderman; Thomas Ball, Edward Fyan, Clement Ash, Christ. White, Alderman; Patrick Bath, John Harrison, Robert Caddoll, John Brice, Lymrick Nottingham, Esq.; George Forster, Sir Phil. Percival, Knight; John Ball, John, the Son of Alderman Kennedy; Clement Usher, William Purcell, Robert Malone, Walter Kenedy, Alderman; Dame FitzWilliams, widow; Andrew Clerk, Alderman; Sir Robert Dixon, Knight; William Malone, Alderman; Nich. Stephens, Alderman; Edward James, Alderman; James Mey, Christopher Hancock, Elliner Terrel, now with Alderman Pallace; Robert Usher of Cromlin; William Nangle, Baron of the Navin in Com. Mid.; Christ. Barnewell.

All were specified in the said return, and answer unto the above commission of inspection : several others hold parcels of the above Guild not yet discovered or returned.

We are left in ignorance as to what was the result of this commission.

Again, during the years 1642-1644, the affairs of the gild were the subject of inquiry by the House of Commons, and again no conclusion. But the most important proceedings were those taken 27th March, 1682, by the prebendary and churchwardens of St. Audoen’s, on behalf of the parish, who filed a Bill in Chancery against the master and wardens of the gild. As in the case of Lowe’s action, the plaintiffs gratuitously and impudently assumed that its revenues, in the present state of religion, were to be used solely for the benefit of St. Audoen’s Church and parish. The bill stated that the fraternity had been originally erected for the purpose of founding a chantry of six priests, two choristers, and six singing men, together with an organist, for the worship of God in the said parish church; that its annual revenues now amounted to £2,500; and that a gross breach of trust was being committed. It was likewise stated that the reason the gild had not long ago been prevented from their illegal perversion of funds was that before 1641 the greater number of the members were Roman Catholics; that since that year the gild had been reconstructed, church services properly maintained, and the church fabric repaired. But since the Rebellion, they asserted, Roman Catholic masters and wardens were elected, who distributed the revenues among popish priests and the members of the fraternity, and allowed the college to become ruinous. These Catholic brethren had been successful in concealing the nature and true value of a large portion of such revenues. The Protestant plaintiffs, therefore, sought that the Catholic defendants should be compelled to make discovery of the means and bounds of the gild property, and that its original purposes should be carried into effect.

On 16th June, 1682, the principal defendants filed their answer, in which they furnished a general history of the gild from about 1620, and totally denied that they or their predecessors were bound to support the clergy and services of St. Audoen’s. to show that there was no foundation for the insinuation in the Bill as to the principal officers having been Roman Catholics, a list of masters and wardens from 1638 was supplied, from which it appeared that nearly all elected up to 1681 belonged to the Protestant religion. Again, no decree appears to have been pronounced. In 1684 a vestry meeting was held at St. Audoen’s, which decided to leave the case to the [Lord Chancellor] (Michael Boyle, [Protestant] [Archbishop of Armagh] ) for arbitration. But it appears that the fraternity evaded this reference to the Archbishop, and the matter again fell through.

In the present state of our information as to the history of the gild from 1558 onwards, it is impossible to come to any definite decision as to whose hands the gild property fell into. The Bull of St. [Pius V] was a natural warning to preserve Catholic property during the troubled times. But it seems extraordinary that no move was made to enforce the handing over of the gild property of St. Anne’s to the Crown. It would seem that from 1558, during Elizabeth’s reign, the master and wardens had succeeded in keeping their affairs to themselves, in Catholic hands. They could not appoint priests to the chantry in St. Audoen’s, which church had been taken over by the [Protestants] , and consequently the college premises fell into ruin. In the reign of James I some effort was made to trace the property, and the charters ordered to be brought into Court. But it was with the coming of Wentworth to Ireland as Deputy in 1633 that the real searching began. It might be legitimately inferred from all this that so far the property had lain mostly in Catholic hands, and that the revenues were devoted to the maintenance of their religion among the parishioners of St. Audoen’s. The admission by the [Catholic] defendants that at all events from [1638] to [1681] nearly all the masters and wardens were Protestants would indicate that before [1638] such was not the case. There is no doubt, however, that with the insurrection of 1641 began the downfall of the Catholic domination of the gild. And yet, strange to say, some of the principal brethren of the gild in 1682 were Catholics. In that year, after the storm created by the [Titus Oates] ‘ [Popish Plot] ’, the imprisonment and death of Peter Talbot, [Archbishop of Dublin] ( [1680] ) and execution of [Oliver Plunket] ( [1681] ), a new move was made to get the remnant of the gild property into [Protestant] hands. The impudent plea that a breach of trust was made because the revenue ordered by royal charter to be devoted to the celebration of Mass was not devoted to the upkeep of a [Protestant] church is too stupid to waste words over. But what became of the property after 1682 is more than man can tell. That it remained in [Protestant] hands there can be scarcely a shadow of doubt, without any question as to the fulfilment of the trust. What division of the spoils was made after 1740, in whose hands are the leases, or whether they have been destroyed as incriminating documents, we cannot tell. What has been said of St. Anne’s Gild may very probably be true also of the other religious gilds of medieval [Dublin] . Similar circumstances may have produced similar results. It is an important chapter in the history of the diocese which probably will never be completed.

Modern adaptation

A group of Catholics attending the Traditional Latin Mass in St. Audoen's formed a branch of the Sodality of Our Lady called 'Saint Anne's Guild' in May, 2001.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Saint Anne (disambiguation) — Saint Anne is the mother of the Virgin Mary, according to Catholic tradition.Saint Anne, Saint Ann, or Saint Anna may also refer to:People*Saint Anne Line (d. 1601), English Catholic martyr *Saint Anne Pak A gi, of the Korean… …   Wikipedia

  • Anne Bauchens — (Saint Louis (Missouri), 2 février 1882 Woodland Hills (Los Angeles), 7 mai 1967) est une monteuse de cinéma américaine particulièrement connue pour ses plus de 40 ans de collaboration avec le réalisateur Cecil B. DeMille. Quand l Oscar du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Saint Joan (play) — Saint Joan is a 1923 play by Irishman George Bernard Shaw written shortly after the Roman Catholic Church canonized Joan of Arc. It is a dramatization based on what is known of her life and on the substantial records of her trial. It quickly… …   Wikipedia

  • Anne-Marie Duff — Infobox actor imagesize = 200px caption = Duff with husband James McAvoy at the Orange British Academy Film Awards at London s Royal Opera House in February 2007 birthdate = Birth date and age|1970|10|8 birthplace = Southall, Greater London,… …   Wikipedia

  • Saint George — Infobox Saint name=Saint George birth date=between ca. AD 275 and 281 death date=April 23 303 feast day=April 23 venerated in=Anglicanism Eastern Orthodoxy Lutheranism Oriental Orthodoxy Roman Catholicism imagesize=200px caption=Painting by… …   Wikipedia

  • Anne Catherine Emmerich — Infobox Saint name=Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich birth date=September 8, 1774 death date=February 9, 1824 feast day=February 9 venerated in=Roman Catholic Church imagesize=250px caption= birth place=Coesfeld, Westphalia, Holy Roman Empire death …   Wikipedia

  • Basilique Saint-Denis — Présentation Nom local Basilique de Saint Denis Culte Catholique romain …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Abbaye de Saint-Denis — Basilique Saint Denis Basilique Saint Denis Vue générale de l édifice Nom local Basilique de Saint Denis Latitude Longitude …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis — Basilique Saint Denis Basilique Saint Denis Vue générale de l édifice Nom local Basilique de Saint Denis Latitude Longitude …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Basilique-cathédrale de Saint-Denis — Basilique Saint Denis Basilique Saint Denis Vue générale de l édifice Nom local Basilique de Saint Denis Latitude Longitude …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”