- Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency
Name = Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency
DiseasesDB = 30116
ICD10 = ICD10|D|55|2|d|55
ICD9 = ICD9|282.3
OMIM = 190450
Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency is a rare,
autosomal recessivedisorder which was initially described in 1965.cite journal | last = Schneider | first = Arthur S. | coauthors = William N. Valentine, Hattori M, H. L. Heins Jr | year = 1965 | title = Hereditary Hemolytic Anemia with Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency | journal = New England Journal of Medicine | volume = 272 | pages = 229–35 |pmid=14242501 ]
It is a unique glycolytic
enzymopathythat is characterized by chronic haemolytic anaemia, cardiomyopathy, susceptibility to infections, severe neurological dysfunction, and, in most cases, death in early childhood.cite journal | last = Schneider | first = Arthur S. | year = 2000 | month = March | title = Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency: historical perspectives and molecular aspects | volume = 13 | issue = 1 | pages = 119–140 |pmid=10916682 | doi = 10.1053/beha.2000.0061 | url = http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WBG-45FKMG0-1M&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2000&_alid=513209010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=6710&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=8e3e20cfe506dfa885685fca4ab1de4a | accessdate = 2006-12-22 | journal = Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology] The disease is exceptionally rare with less than 100 patients diagnosed worldwide.
Thirteen different mutations in the respective gene, which is located at
chromosome 12p13 and encodes the ubiquitous housekeeping enzyme triosephosphate isomerase(TPI), have been discovered so far. TPI is a crucial enzyme of glycolysisand catalyzes the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphateand glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. A marked decrease in TPI activity and an accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphatehave been detected in erythrocyteextracts of homozygous(two identical mutant alleles) and compound heterozygous(two different mutant alleles) TPI deficiency patients. Heterozygous individuals are clinically unaffected, even if their residual TPI activity is reduced. Recent work suggests that not a direct inactivation, but an alteration in TPI dimerizationmight underlie the pathology.cite journal | last = Ralser | first = Markus | coauthors = Gino Heeren, Michael Breitenbach, Hans Lehrach, Sylvia Krobitsch | date = December 20, 2006| title = Triose Phosphate Isomerase Deficiency Is Caused by Altered Dimerization–Not Catalytic Inactivity–of the Mutant Enzymes | journal = PLoS ONE | volume = 1 | issue = 1 | pages = e30 | doi = 10.1371/journal.pone.0000030 | url = http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0000030 ] This might explain why the disease is rare, but inactive TPI alleles have been detected at higher frequency implicating a heterozygote advantageof inactive TPI alleles.
The most common mutation causing TPI deficiency is TPI Glu104Asp. Interestingly, all carriers of the mutant are descendants of a common ancestor, a person that lived in what is today France or England more than 1000 years ago. cite journal |author=Schneider A, Westwood B, Yim C, "et al" |title=The 1591C mutation in triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency. Tightly linked polymorphisms and a common haplotype in all known families |journal=Blood Cells Mol. Dis. |volume=22 |issue=2 |pages=115–25 |year=1996 |pmid=8931952 |doi=10.1006/bcmd.1996.0019 |url=]
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