- Capital Account Convertibility
Capital Account Convertibility or CAC is a
monetary policythat centers around the ability to conduct transactions of local financial assets into foreign financial assets freely and at market determined exchange rates. [ [http://inhome.rediff.com/money/2006/sep/04faq.htm FAQ: Capital a/c convertibility and how it affects you] ] It is sometimes referred to as "Capital Asset Liberation".
In layman's terms, it is basically a policy that allows the easy exchange of
local currency(cash) for foreign currency at low rates.Fact|date=February 2008 This is so local merchants can easily conduct transnational business without needing foreign currency exchanges to handle small transactions.Fact|date=February 2008 CAC is mostly a guideline to changes of ownership in foreign or domestic financial assets and liabilities. Tangentially, it covers and extends the framework of the creation and liquidation of claims on, or by the rest of the world, on local asset and currency markets.Benu Schneider. Issues in Capital Account Convertibility in Developing Countries. Speech delivered to Overseas Development Institute, 2000.]
CAC was first coined as a theory by the
Reserve Bank of Indiain 1997 by the Tarapore Committee, in an effort to find fiscal and economic policies that would enable developing Third Worldcountries transition to globalized market economies.Vijay Joshi, Ian Malcolm, David Little. India's Economic Reforms, 1991-2001. Published 1996 Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198290780] However, it had been practiced, although without formal thought or organization of policy or restriction, since the very early 90's. Article VIII of the IMF’s Articles of Agreementis agreed by most economists to have been the basis for CAC, although it notably failed to anticipate problems with the concept in regard to outflows of currency.
However, before the formalization of CAC, there were problems with the theory. Free flow of assets was required to work in both directions. Although CAC freely enabled investment in the country, it also enabled quick liquidation and removal of
capital assets from the country, both domestic and foreign. It also exposed domestic creditors to overseas credit risks, fluctuations in fiscal policy, and manipulation.Zoubida Allaoua. India: sustaining rapid economic growth. Published 1997 World Bank Publications. ISBN 0821339923]
As a result, there were severe disruptions that helped to contribute to the
East Asian crisis of the mid 90's. In Malaysia, for example, there were heavy losses in overseas investments of at least one bank, in the magnitude of hundreds of millions of dollars. These were not realized and identified until a reform system strengthened regulatory and accounting controls.Prema-Chandra Athukorala. Crisis and Recovery in Malaysia: The Role of Capital Controls. Published 2003 Edward Elgar Publishing. Pg 44 ISBN 1843764555] This led to the Tarapore Committee meeting which formalized CAC as utilizing a mixture of free asset allocationand stringent controls.Zoubida Allaoua. India: sustaining rapid economic growth. Published 1997 World Bank Publications. ISBN 0821339923]
CAC has 5 basic statements designed as points of action:L. Bethell. The West and the Third World: Trade, Colonialism, Dependence and Development. Published 1999 Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0631194398]
* All types of
liquid capitalassets must be able to be exchanged freely, between any two nations, with standardized exchange rates.
* The amounts must be a significant amount (in excess of $500,000).
* Capital inflows should be invested in semi-liquid assets, to prevent churning and excessive outflow.
Institutional investors should not use CAC to manipulate fiscal policy or exchange rates.
* Excessive inflows and outflows should be buffered by
national banks to provide collateral.
In most traditional theories of
international trade, the reasoning for capital account convertibility was so that foreign investors could invest without barriers. Prior to its implementation, foreign investment was hindered by uneven exchange rates due to corrupt officials, local businessmen had no convenient way to handle large cash transactions, and national banks were disassociated from fiscal exchange policy and incurred high costs in supplying hard-currency loans for those few local companies that wished to do business abroad.
Due to the low exchange rates and lower costs associated with Third World nations, this was expected to spur domestic capital, which would lead to welfare gains, and in turn lead to higher GDP growth. The tradeoff for such growth was seen as a lack of sustainable internal GNP growth and a decrease in domestic capital investments.Vijay Joshi. India: macroeconomics and political economy, 1964-1991. World Bank Publications ISBN 082132652]
When CAC is used with the proper restraints, this is exactly what happens. The entire outsourcing movement with jobs and factories going oversees is a direct result of the foreign investment aspect of CAC. The Tarapore Committee's recommendation of tying liquid assets to static assets (i.e., investing in long term
government bonds, etc) was seen by many economists as directly responsible for stabilizing the idea of capital account liberalization.
Despite changes in wording over the years, and additional safeguards, there is still criticism of CAC by some economists. American economists, in particular, find the restriction on inflows to Third World countries being invested in improvements as negative, since they would rather see such transactions put to direct use in growing capital.Zoubida Allaoua. India: sustaining rapid economic growth. Published 1997 World Bank Publications. ISBN 0821339923] Benu Schneider. Issues in Capital Account Convertibility in Developing Countries. Speech delivered to Overseas Development Institute, 2000.]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.