Cell fate determination

Cell fate determination

Cell fate determination is the programming of a cell to follow a specified path of cell differentiation. Often, cells are discussed in terms of their terminal differentiation state. During development, fates of some few cells may be specified at certain times. When referring to developmental fate or cell fate, one is talking about everything that happens to that cell and its progeny after that point in development.

The process of a cell to be committed to a certain state can be divided into two stages: specification and determination. Specification is not a permanent stage and cells can be reversed based upon different cues. In contrast, determination refers to when cells are irreversibly committed to a particular fate. This is a process influenced by the action of the extracellular environment and the contents of the cell's genome. Determination is not something that is visible under the microscope- cells do not change their appearance when they become determined. Determination is followed by differentiation, the actual changes in biochemistry, structure, and function that result in cells of different types. Differentiation often involves a change in appearance as well as function.

The state of commitment of a cell is also known as its developmental potential. When the developmental potential is less than or equal to the developmental fate, the cell is exhibiting mosaic behavior. When the developmental potential is greater than the developmental fate, the cell is exhibiting regulative behavior.

Embryos can use a combination of methods and exhibit a combination of behaviors throughout its development.

Types of specification

There are three major ways that developmental fates become specified: autonomous specification, conditional specification and syncytial specification.

Autonomous specification

This type of specification results from cell-intrinsic properties; it gives rise to mosaic development. The cell-intrinsic properties arise from a cleavage of a cell with asymmetric cytoplasmic determinants or morphogenetic determinants. Thus, the fate of the cell depends on factors segregated into the cytoplasm during cleavage. Autonomous specification was demonstrated in 1887 by a French medical student, Laurent Chabry working on tunicate embryoscite book |author=S. Gilbert.|title=Developmental Biology.|6th 3d http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=dbio.section.333] ; the biochemical confirmation of cytoplasmic segregation was determined on 1973 by J. R of Whittaker [Whittaker JR. Segregation during ascidian embryogenesis of egg cytoplasmic information fortissue-specific enzyme development.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 Jul;70(7):2096-100.] .

Conditional specification

In contrast to the autonomous specification, this type of specification is a cell-extrinsic process that relies on cues and interactions between cells or from concentration-gradients of morphogens. These interactions can be either stimulatory or inhibitory. This type of specification was discovered from the result of transplantation experiments and isolation experiments.

yncytial specification

This type of a specification is a hybrid of the autonomous and conditional that occurs in insects. This method involves the action of morphogen gradients within the syncytium. As there are no cell boundaries in the syncytium, these morphogens can influence nuclei in a concentration-dependent manner.

Link to: Cellular determination

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Determination — may refer to: Determination (God Forbid album), 2001 Determination (Tommy Emmanuel album), 1992 Cell fate determination Co determination Coefficient of determination Expert determination Hidden surface determination Orbit determination… …   Wikipedia

  • Adult stem cell — Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body after embryonic development that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Also known as somatic (from Greek Σωματικóς, of the body ) stem cells, they can …   Wikipedia

  • Cancer stem cell — Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a sub population of cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics normally associated with stem cells. These cells are believed to be tumorigenic (tumor forming), in contrast …   Wikipedia

  • determination — /di terr meuh nay sheuhn/, n. 1. the act of coming to a decision or of fixing or settling a purpose. 2. ascertainment, as after observation or investigation: determination of a ship s latitude. 3. the information ascertained; solution. 4. the… …   Universalium

  • determination — de•ter•mi•na•tion [[t]dɪˌtɜr məˈneɪ ʃən[/t]] n. 1) the act of coming to a decision or of resolving something 2) ascertainment, as by observation, investigation, or measurement 3) the information ascertained 4) the settlement of a dispute,… …   From formal English to slang

  • Cellular differentiation — Cell differentiation redirects here. For the journal, see Cell Differentiation (journal). In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. Differentiation… …   Wikipedia

  • Regional specification — In the field of developmental biology, regional specification is the process by which different areas are identified in the development of the early embryo. The process by which the cells become specified differs between organisms. Contents 1… …   Wikipedia

  • Notch-2 — PDB rendering based on 2oo4 …   Wikipedia

  • Notch signaling pathway — Structure of the ligand binding region of the human NOTCH 1 receptor …   Wikipedia

  • NODAL — homolog (mouse) Identifiers Symbols NODAL; MGC138230 External IDs OMIM: …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”