- Paralympic Games
The Paralympic Games are a multi-sport event for athletes with physical and sensorial disabilities. This includes athletes with mobility disabilities,
amputations, blindness, and cerebral palsy. The Paralympic Games are held every four years, following the Olympic Games, and are governed by the International Paralympic Committee(IPC). The Paralympic Games are sometimes confused with the Special Olympics World Games, which are only for people with intellectual disabilities, but Special Olympics participants may still take part in the Paralympic games.
Although the name was originally coined as a
portmanteaucombining ' paraplegic' (due to its origins as games for people with spinal injuries) and 'Olympic',cite web|url=http://www.paralympic.org/release/Main_Sections_Menu/IPC/About_the_IPC/|title=About the IPC|publisher=IPC] the inclusion of other disability groups meant that this was no longer considered appropriate. The present formal explanation for the name is therefore that it derives from the Greek prepositionπαρά, "pará" ("beside" or "alongside") and thus refers to a competition held in parallel with the Olympic Games.
On the day of the opening of the
1948 Summer Olympicsin London, Dr. Ludwig Guttmannof Stoke Mandeville Hospitalorganised a sports competition for British World War Twoveteran patients with spinal cord injuries. The games were held again at the same location in 1952, and Dutch veterans took part alongside the British, making it the first international competition of its kind. These Stoke Mandeville Games have been described as the precursors of the Paralympic Games. The Paralympics were subsequently officialised as a quadrennial event tied to the Olympic Games, and the first official Paralympic Games, no longer open solely to war veterans, were held in Rome in 1960. [ [http://www.cbc.ca/olympics/story/2008/09/02/f-paralympics-history.html "Paralympics traces roots to Second World War"] , CBC, September 3, 2008] [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2008/07/04/paralympics_sixty_feature.shtml "2012 – The Paralympics come home"] , BBC, July 4, 2008] At the Toronto 1976 Games other groups of athletes with different disabilities were also included.
The movement has grown dramatically since its early days – for example the number of athletes participating in the Summer Paralympic Games has increased from 400 athletes in
Romein 1960 to over 4,200 athletes from 148 countries in Beijingin 2008.
The Paralympic Games take place in the same year as the Olympic Games. However, it is only since 1988 that the Games have been held in the same city, using the same venues.In 2001 the IOC and IPC signed an agreement which guaranteed that Host Cities would be contracted to manage both Olympic Games and Paralympic Games with effect from 2012. Today, the
International Paralympic Committee(IPC) is the global governing body of the Paralympic Movement; it organises the Summer and Winter Paralympic Games; and also serves as the International Federation for 12 sports, for which it supervises and coordinates the World Championships and other competitions.
The Paralympic Games have seen damaging scandals regarding cheating in the events. After the 2000 Sydney Games, in which non-disabled athletes were entered in the Spanish Basketball ID team [cite web|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060118062536/http://www.paralympic.org/release/Main_Sections_Menu/Media/Press_Releases/2000_11_27_a.html|title=IPC Calls For Full Investigation|accessdate=2008-08-23|date=27 November 2000|publisher=IPC] , athletes with intellectual difficulties were suspended indefinitely by the IPC. [cite web|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20041224162629/http://www.paralympic.org/release/Main_Sections_Menu/Media/Press_Releases/2001_03_09_a.html|title=IPC Suspends INAS-FID from Membership|accessdate=2008-08-23|date=9 March 2001|publisher=IPC] The IPC has stated that it will re-evaluate their participation following the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games. [cite web|url=http://www.paralympic.org/release/Main_Sections_Menu/Media/Press_Releases/2006_06_26_a.html| title=Press Releases|date=26 June 2006|publisher=IPC] Dead link|date=August 2008
The following sports are currently on the Summer Paralympic Games programme:
*Athletics (track and field)
These sports will be part of the 2008 Paralympic Games in Beijing, China.
The following sports are not included in the Summer Paralympic Games program, but are governed by the IPC:
Wheelchair dance sport
The following sports are on the current Winter Paralympic Games program:
Ragnhild Myklebustof Norwayholds the record for the most ever medals won at the Winter Paralympic Games. Competing in a variety of events in 1988, 1992, 1994 and 2002, she won a total of 22 medals, of which 17 were gold. [ [http://www.vancouver2010.com/fr/OrganizingCommittee/MediaCentre/NewsReleases/2007/12/13/76537_0712131208-140 "Possibilité de médaille d’or : Vancouver 2010 annonce la recherche d’un concepteur pour les médailles olympiques et paralympiques"] , official website of the 2010 Vancouver Games, December 13, 2007]
[cite web |title=Making sense of the categories |publisher=BBC Sport |date=2000-10-06 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics2000/paralympics/959701.stm |accessdate=2008-09-18]
*Amputee: Athletes with a partial or total loss of at least one limb.
*Cerebral Palsy: Athletes with non-progressive
brain damage, for example cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, strokeor similar disabilities affecting muscle control, balance or coordination.
*Intellectual Disability: Athletes with a significant impairment in intellectual functioning and associated limitations in adaptive behavior. (This category is currently suspended.)
*Wheelchair: Athletes with spinal cord injuries and other disabilities which require them to compete in a
*Visually Impaired: Athletes with vision impairment ranging from partial vision, sufficient to be judged legally blind, to total
*"Les Autres": Athletes with a physical disability that does not fall strictly under one of the other five categories, such as
dwarfism, multiple sclerosisor congenital deformities of the limbs such as that caused by thalidomide(the name for this category is the French for "the others").
These categories apply to both summer and winter Paralympics.
Within the six disability categories the athletes still need to be divided according to their differing level of impairment.
The classification systems differ from sport to sport, in accordance with the different skills required to perform the sport.
Archery:Archery is open to athletes with a physical disability. Classification is broken up into three classes: W1, spinal cordand cerebral palsyathletes with impairment in all four limbs. W2, wheelchair users with full arm function. Standing, Amputee, Les Autres and Cerebral Palsy standing athletes. Some athletes in the standing group will sit on a high stool for support but will still have their feet touching the ground. Athletics:Athletics is open to all disability groups and uses a functional classification system. A brief classification guide is as follows: prefixing F for field athletes or T for track athletes. F or T 11-13 are visually impaired, F or T 20 are learning difficulty, F or T 31-38 are cerebral palsy, F or T 41- 46 amputee and les autres, T 51- 54 wheelchair track athletes and F51- 58 wheelchair field athletes. Basketball:Basketball is open to wheelchair athletes and athletes with a learning disability. Wheelchair athletes are classified according to their physical ability and are given a points rating between 1 - 4.5. One pointers being the most severely disabled and 4.5 the least disabled. A team on court comprises five players and may not exceed a total of 14 points at any given time. Boccia:Boccia is open to athletes with cerebral palsy who compete from a wheelchair. Classification is split into two group; in class 1 those athletes who are dependent on an electric wheelchair or assistance for mobility, and in class 2 those with poor functional strength in all extremities and trunk but able to propel a wheelchair. Cycling:Cycling is open to amputee, les autre, cerebral palsy and visually impairedathletes who compete in individual road race and track events. Classification is split into divisions 2, 3 and 4 for athletes with cerebral palsy, athletes in division two being the most severely handicapped progressing to division 4 which includes physically more able athletes. Visually impaired athletes compete together with no separate classification system. They ride in tandem with a sighted guide. Amputee, Spinal Cord Injury and Les Autre competitors compete within the classification groupings LC1 - essentially for riders with upper limb disabilities, LC2 - essentially for riders with disabilities in one leg but who are able to pedal normally, LC3 - essentially for riders with a handicap in one lower limb who will usually pedal with one leg only, and LC4 for riders with disabilities affecting both legs. Equestrian:Equestrian is open to all disability groups, with riders divided into four grades. Grade 1 incorporates severely disabled riders with Cerebral Palsy, Les Autres and Spinal Cord Injury. Grade 2 incorporates Cerebral Palsy, Les Autres, Spinal Cord injury and Amputee riders with reasonable balance and abdominal control. Grade 3 incorporates Cerebral Palsy, Les Autres, Amputee, Spinal Cord Injury and totally blind athletes with good balance, leg movement and co-ordination. Grade 4 incorporates Cerebral Palsy, Les Autres, Amputee, Spinal Cord injury and Visually Impaired. This last group comprises ambulant athletes with either impaired vision or impaired arm/leg function. Fencing:Fencing is open to wheelchair athletes. There are only three classes; class A incorporates those athletes with good balance and recovery and full trunk movement; class B those with poor balance and recovery but full use of one or both upper limbs; class C athletes with severe physical impairment in all four limbs. Football:Football is open to athletes with cerebral palsy and includes classes 5, 6, 7 and 8. All classes comprise ambulant athletes; class 5 being the least physically able, progressing through to class 8 who are minimally affected. Teams must include at least one athlete from either class 5 or 6. Goalball:Goalball is open to visually impaired athletes who must wear "black out" masks to ensure all participants can compete equally, therefore eliminating the need for classification. Judo:Judo is open to visually impaired athletes. There is no classification as such, participants being divided into weight categories in the same way as able-bodied judo athletes. Powerlifting:Powerlifting is open to athletes with a physical disability. Classification is by weight category as in able bodied powerlifting competition. Sailing:Sailing is open to amputee, cerebral palsy, visually impaired, wheelchair and les autre athletes. Classification for the Sonar is based on a functional points system with low points for severely disabled athletes rising by scale to high points for less disabled athletes. Each crew of three is allowed a maximum of 12 points between them. The singled handed 2.4m can be crewed regardless of points but the sailor must have at least a minimum level of disability which prevents them from competing on equal terms with able bodied sailors. Shooting:Shooting is open to athletes with a physical disability. There are only two classes of competition, wheelchair and standing. Swimming:Classification is divided into three groups: S1 to S10 are those with physical impairment. S1 will have the most severe impairment and an S10 a lesser impairment, for example a hand amputation. S11 to S13 are those with a visual impairment. S11 will have little or no vision, S12 can recognise the shape of a hand and have some ability to see, S13 greater vision than the other two classes but less than 20 degrees of vision. S14 is for athletes with a learning difficulty. Table Tennis:Table tennis is open to athletes with a physical or learning difficulty spread over 11 classes. Classes 1 to 5 encompass athletes competing from a wheelchair with class 1 being the most severely disabled and class 5 the least disabled. Classes 6 to 10 comprise ambulant athletes with class 6 the most severely disabled and class 10 the least. Class 11 is for athletes with a learning difficulty. Tennis:Tennis is open to athletes with a mobility related disability which means that they cannot compete on equal terms with able bodied tennis players. The game is played from a wheelchair, with two classes, wheelchair and quadriplegic (disability in all four limbs). Volleyball:Volleyball is open to athletes with a physical disability and has both a sitting and standing event. In sitting volleyball the court is smaller than standard and has a lower net. Standing volleyball uses a full sized court and normal height net. In the sitting games the only classification is the minimal disability ruling; athletes may compete if they have a disability that prevents them from competing on equal terms with able bodied athletes. Wheelchair rugby:Athletes are classified on a points system similar to wheelchair basketball, with the most severely disabled athlete being graded 0.5 points rising to 3.5 points for the physically more able. Each team is comprised of four players and is allowed a maximum of 8 points on court at any one time.
The IPC has set up
national Paralympic Gamesfor competitions organized under the national Paralympic Committees.
* [http://www.paralympic.org International Paralympic Committee]
* [http://www.paralympic.org.au/apc_sub.asp?id=258 Australian Paralympic Committee - Classification System]
*P. David Howe, "The Cultural Politics of the Paralympic Movement. Through an Anthropological Lens", Routledge, 2008, ISBN 978-0-415-28887-3
* [http://www.paralimpia.lap.hu Paralympic Link Directory]
* [http://www.paralympic.org Official IPC Website]
* [http://www.paralympic.ca Official Canadian Website]
* [http://www.paralympicindia.org Official Indian Website]
* [http://www.thesportscampus.com/beijing-news/india-paralympic-games-2008 India at the Paralympic Games]
* [http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?sectionName=&id=5964f793-0c88-41bc-ba5d-e742605913db&&Headline=Why+are+we+so+unsporting+about+the+differently+abled%3f&strParent=strParentID Olympics vs. Paralympics - why have we stopped caring]
* [http://www.imno.org/articles.asp?qid=164&sid=18 IMNO Interviews Curt Brinkman Five-time Paralympic Gold Medallist]
* [http://archives.cbc.ca/sports/olympics/topics/1363/ CBC Digital Archives - Playing to Win: Canada at the Paralympics]
* [http://www.markthisdate.com/list.html?id=1&searchTerm=paralympics&category_fk=&subcategory_fk=&country_fk=0 / Match schedules of the Paralympics 2008 for electronic calendars like Outlook, iCal and Google Calendar]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7598193.stm "Why the Paralympics matter"] , BBC, September 5, 2008
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