- Central Asia-Center gas pipeline system
Central Asia-Center is a
Gazpromcontrolled system of natural gas pipelines, which run from Turkmenistanvia Uzbekistanand Kazakhstanto Russia. The eastern branch consists Central Asia-Center (CAC) 1, 2, 4 and 5 pipelines, which start from the south eastern gas fields of Turkmenistan. The western branch consists CAC-3 pipeline with the project to build a new parallel Caspian pipeline. The western branch runs from the Turkmenistan's areas of the Caspian Searegion to the north.cite paper | author= Michael Fredholm | url = http://www.defac.ac.uk/colleges/csrc/document-listings/russian/05(41)-MF.pdf |title= The Russian Energy Strategy & Energy Policy: Pipeline Diplomacy or Mutual Dependence? | publisher=Conflict Studies Research Centre | format=PDF | date = September 2005 | accessdate=2007-12-21] The branches meet in western Kazakhstan. From there the pipelines runs to north where they are connected to the Russian natural gas pipeline system.
The system was built from
1960to 1988. The construction began after a discovery of the Dzharkak field, and the first section was completed in 1960.cite paper | author= Martha Brill Olcott | url = http://www.rice.edu/energy/publications/docs/GAS_InternationalGasTradeinCentralAsia.pdf |title=International Gas Trade in Central Asia: Turkmenistan, Iran, Russia and Afghanistan. Working Paper #28 | publisher=Stanford Institute for International Studies | format=PDF | date = May 2004 | accessdate=2007-12-20] CAC-1 and 2 were commissioned in 1969. CAC-4 was commissioned in 1973. In 1976 two parallel lines were laid between Shatlyk and Khiva. CAC-5 was commissioned in 1985 and in 1986-88 the Dauletabad-Khiva line was looped by a 1,420-mm line.
The western branch (CAC-3) was constructed in 1972-1975.cite paper | url = http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2000/01/25/000094946_00011205340794/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf | title = Privatization of the Power and Natural Gas Industries in Hungary and Kazakhstan | publisher=World Bank | format=PDF | id=WTP451 | date = December 1999 | accessdate=2007-12-21]
In 2003, the late President of Turkmenistan
Saparmurat Niyazovproposed to renovate existing system and construct new parallel pipeline to the western branch.cite news | url=http://en.government.kz/site/news/052007/16 | title= Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan agree to renovate the Caspian gas pipeline | publisher = Kazinform | date= 2007-05-14| accessdate=2007-12-21] On 12 May 2007, Vladimir Putinof Russia, Nursultan Nazarbayevof Kazakhstan and Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedowof Turkmenistan signed a memorandum on renovation and expansion of the western branch of the pipeline. [cite news |url=http://www.neurope.eu/view_news.php?id=73862 |title=Putin deal torpedoes Trans-Caspian gas pipeline plans |publisher=New Europe (Belgium) |date= 2007-05-17|accessdate=2007-05-19] [cite news |url=http://www.forbes.com/business/feeds/afx/2007/05/13/afx3715292.html | title=Russia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan agree landmark gas pipeline deal | publisher= Forbes| date= 2007-05-13| accessdate=2007-05-19] On 20 December 2007, Russia, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan finalized agreement on construction of new Caspian pipeline parallel to existing CAC-3 pipeline (Bekdash-Europe pipeline).
Almost all Uzbek and Turkmen natural gas delivered through the CAC pipeline system, mainly through the eastern branch, because of the location of production sites and poor technical conditions of the western branch. CAC-1, 2, 4 and 5 pipelines are supplied from gas fields in South-East of Turkmenistan, mainly from the
Dauletabad gas field. The eastern branch starts from the Dauletabad field and continues through the Shatlyk gas field east of Tejento Khiva, Uzbekistan. From there the pipeline system transports gas north-westward along Amu Daryato the Kungradcompressor station in Uzbekistan. From Kungrad, most of the gas is carried via Kazakhstan to Alexandrov Gaygas metering station in Russia.cite paper | url = http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/1990/caspian_oil_gas98.pdf |title= Caspian Oil and Gas | publisher= International Energy Agency| format=PDF | isbn = 9264160957 | date = 1998 | accessdate=2007-12-21] At Alexandrov Gay CAC pipelines meet with Soyuz (Brotherhood) and Orenburg-Novopskov pipelines. From there two lines run northwest to Moscow, and two others proceeds across the Volga river to the North Caucasus-Moscow transmission system. The diameter of most pipelines varies between 1,020-1,420 mm. The current capacity of the system is 44 billion cubic meters (bcm) per year. Its agreed to increase the capacity to 55 bcm by 2010 and by modernization it's possible to increase the capacity up to 90 bcm.
The western branch originates at Ekarem, near the Turkmen-Iranian border and runs to north. It is supplied by gas from fields scattered along the Caspian coast between Okarem and Nebit Dag. It continues via Uzen in Kazakhstan to the Beyneu compressor station , where it meets the eastern branch of the CAC. South of Cheleken, the western system consists of 710 mm diameter pipeline, and between Cheleken and Beyneau 1,220 mm pipeline.
On 20 December 2007, Russia, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan agreed to construct a new Caspian pipeline parallel to existing CAC-3 pipeline. The pipeline will be built between the Belek compressor station in Turkmenistan and the Alexandrov Gay station.cite paper | url = http://jamestown.org/edm/email-to-friend.php?article_id=2372670 | author=John C. K. Daly | title= Turkmenistan, Natural Gas, and the West | publisher= Eurasia Daily Monitor | date =
2007-12-14| accessdate=2007-12-21] The capacity of the new pipeline will be 20 bcm and it would be built by late 2010.cite news | author= Isabel Gorst | url = http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/674201a6-aefe-11dc-880f-0000779fd2ac.html | title= Russia seals Central Asian gas pipeline deal |publisher= Financial Times| date= 2007-12-20| accessdate=2007-12-20]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.