- Biodiversity protection efforts in Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guineatogether with the West PapuaProvince of Indonesia ( New Guinea) make up a major tropical wilderness areathat still contains 5% of the original and untouched tropical high-biodiversity terrestrial ecosystems " [Mittermeier, R. A., N. Myers, J. B. Thomsen, G. da Fonseca, A,B, and S. Olivieri. 1998. Biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: Approaches to setting conservation priorities. Conservation Biology 12:516-520.http://www.jstor.org/cgi-bin/jstor/printpage/08888892/di995184/99p0314x/0.pdf?backcontext=page&dowhat=Acrobat&config=jstor&userIDemail@example.com/01cc99332300501b1bfc6&0.pdf] . PNG in itself contains over 5% of the world's " [ Newell G.R., 1999. Australia's tree-kangaroos: current issues in their conservation. Biological Conservation, Elsevier Science 87, (1), pp: 1-12. Available at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/00063207/1999/00000087/00000001/art00052 ] , out of which 84 genera of animals are endemic. Ecosystems range from lowland forests to montane forests, alpine flora down to coastal areas which contains some of the most extensive pristine mangrove areas in the world. Much of this biodiversity has remained intact for thousands of years because the ruggedness of the terrain made the interior lands inaccessible; furthermore low population density and restrictions on the effectiveness of traditional tools, ensured that these biodiversity was never overexploited.
Even though this biodiversity is on just 1% of the world land mass, it has both global and local value. Most of the ecosystem service provided by the forests and oceans (e.g. water cycling, carbon cycling) is impartial to political boundaries. Within the country, about 79% " [Papua New Guinea Development Report, 1998, Office of national Planning, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea http://www.undp.org.in/hdrc/APRI/NHDR_Rgn/Papua%20New%20Guinea/] of the PNG population depend on the biological resource to sustain their physical, spiritual and social livelihoods" [Sillitoe P., 2001, Hunting for Conservation in the Papua New Guinea Highlands. Routledge 66, (3)365 –393 http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/media/mgljqklxtkvm6334gt7r/contributions/y/f/r/g/yfrg153q210t7f08.pdf] " [Kwapena, N. 1984. Traditional conservation and utilization of wildlife in Papua New Guinea. Environmentalist 4, supplement 7:22–26.] . The biological resources are a source of food, building material, medicine for minor ailments, logs for canoes. The traditional society revered, and respected nature because it was considered a gift from some ancestor " [Sillitoe, P. 1999. Beating the boundaries: Land tenure and identity in the Papua New Guinea Highlands. Journal of Anthropological Research, 55(3), 331-383.] . Currently, the harvesting of natural resource for export is a source of income that sustains the modern PNG economy.
Legal Frame Work for Conservation
The PNG government recognized the relationship between the people and nature and at independence, provision was made in the constitution for “…all necessary steps to be taken to give adequate protection to all our valued birds, animals, fish, insects, plants and trees”" [Ericho J.1998. Lessons from Crater Mountain ICAD Project and Some Suggestions. (Eds Saulei M.A and Elis J). The Reports of Matupore Conference: ICAD Practitioners’ views from the field. DEC and UNDP Rome: 168-173.] . . Currently, biodiversity is explicitly protected by the following legislation: "Fauna Act/1982" , "Conservation areas Act/1980, 1992", the "Crocodile Trade Act/1982" and the "International Trade Act/1982" " [JICA, 2002. Country Profile on Environment in Papua New Guinea Planning and Evaluation Department Japan International Development Cooperation Agency. Available at http://www.jica.go.jp/english/global/env/profiles/pdf/02.pdf)] . The Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) is the government agency responsible for biodiversity conservation.
The PNG government’s effort to conserve biodiversity is supported by international environment conservation Non Government Organizations(NGO's) . The major government research organizations include the Forestry Research Institute (FRI), and the National Agriculture Research Institute (NARI) [http://www.nari.org.pg/index.htm] . The government owned universities; the University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) [http://www.upng.ac.pg/] and the University of Technology (UNITECH) [http://www.unitech.ac.pg/] . also contribute to novel researches into the PNG biodiversity. The government research organizations tend to place emphasis on species with economical value to PNG. The NGOs, on the other hand are the driving force for biodiversity conservation for the sake of conservation. The major international NGO's assistng in biodiversity conservation include; Conservation International (CI) [http://www.conservation.org/xp/CIWEB/regions/asia/melanesia.xml] ; The Binatang Research Centre (BRC) [http://www.entu.cas.cz/png/parataxoweb.htm] , Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) [http://www.wcs.org/international/Asia/175994] , World Wildlife Fund (WWF) [http://www.http://www.wwfpacific.org.fj/where_we_work/png/about.cfm] and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) [http://www.nature.org/wherewework/asiapacific/papuanewguinea/] .
Status of Biodiversity Protection
The effort by the PNG government to protect biodiversity has resulted in 44 existing terrestrial
protected areasusing the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources ( IUCN) categories" [ [http://earthtrends.wri.org/pdf_library/data_tables/Bio2_2003.pdf Microsoft Word - protected_areas_notes formatted final.doc ] ] . . These protected areas occupy 1.6% of the total land area. A study of biodiversity " [Nix, H.A., D.P. Faith, M.F. Hutchinson, C.R. Margules, J. West, A. Allison, J.L.Kesteven, G. Natera, W. Slater, J.L. Stein, and P. Walker, 2000. ‘The BioRapToolbox: A National Study of Biodiversity Assessment and Planning for PapuaNew Guinea.’ Canberra: CSIRO Press.] , identified a further 398 areas as candidates for conservation. This would increase the total protected areas to 16.8% of the total country area. PNG also has two RAMSARsites.
Included in the PNG protected area list, but not formally recognized by IUCN is the terrestrial wildlife management area(WMA)" [ [http://earthtrends.wri.org/pdf_library/country_profiles/bio_cou_598.pdf bio_cou_598.xls ] ] . WMA is an Integrated Conservation and Development Project (ICAD)" [West, P. 2006. Environmental conservation and mining: Between experience and expectations in the Eastern highlands province. The Contemporary Pacific 18:295-313.] , which seeks to conserve biological diversity by involving landowners. The idea behind the project is that income generating activities, from the biological diversity would encourage people living in these areas to conserve, because such projects would link the value of these resources to living standard and also access to markets. The progress of WMA’s is yet to be evaluated.
Apart from local conservation efforts, PNG is also a signatory to international conventions and treaties. These international treaties include " [ [http://www.ciesin.org/docs/008-127/008-127.html Convention on Biodiversity ] ] . "The International Plant protection Convention (1951)","The Convention on the prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other matter (1972)"; "The convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)"; "The
RAMSARConvention on Wetlands of International Importance (1992); Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)" and the "Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals". PNG is also in partnership with other nations in the Oceania region and is a signatory to the regional convention, "The Convention on Conservation of Nature in the South Pacific (APIA Convention").
Challenges to the Conservation Efforts
Despite the provision for conservation in the legal framework, as well as interest shown by the international organizations, it is still a challenge to carry out conservation in PNG.
Firstly, the Land_tenure, wherein the communities own 97% of the land makes it difficult for the government or any conservation organisation to procure land for conservation. The land is believed to be an inheritance from some mystical ancestor and therefore, cannot be sold. Therefore, involving communities in WMA was identified as being compatible with the PNG land tenure system. The PNG constitution recognised this and empowered the landowners to be involved with conservation on their own land. However, the progress of WMA’s is yet to be evaluated.
Secondly, PNG raises all her revenue from the extraction of natural resources ; as such environmental destructive developmental projects have always taken precedence over environmental protection. For instance, the logging industry in PNG has been identified as the main source of widespread overexploitation of forest as well as species dependent on the forests. About 23% of the 50,000-60,000 ha cleared permanently is done by industrial logging. The forest that took millions of years to grow is deforested at an average rate of 1 percent per year [http://rainforests.mongabay.com/20png.htm] . The reluctance of government support for conservation can be seen in government documents containing recommendations which are very general with no defined goal for the future of conservation.
Thirdly, the increase in human population (3.2 % children per child bearing female) [http://www.nso.gov.pg/Pop_Soc_%20Stats/popsoc.htm] has increased the per capita consumption of the biological resources. For instance, the pressure to
huntbig game for food has increased with the growth of population " [Dwyer, P.D., n.d. Etolo Hunting Performance and Energetics. Available athttp://www.springerlink.com/content/r074gll60705k18k/fulltext.pdf] , this situation is exacerbated by the fact that when these animals become rarer, their value will resulting in added pressure to acquire them. The rate and efficiency of harvesting has also increased, aided by modern and efficient harvesting implements.
Furthermore is the misconception by the populace that natural resource is infinite. For instance, some coastal communities practice “dynamite fishing”, without knowing that this practice not only kills fish and other marine organisms indiscriminately; it also destroys the coral reefs. Most coastal communities have little understanding how fish stocks are recruited and maintained in the oceans " [Foale, S and Manele B 2004, Social and political barriers to the use of Marine protected Areas for conservation and fishery management in Melanesia. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, Vol 45, # 3 pp373-386] .
The effects of
climate changeand the introduction of exotic species add another dimension on to the challenge of conservation. The potential impacts from climate change (changes in geographical range, morphology, physiology and phenology) on terrestrial species are shown to be happening elsewhere; however no formal studies have been conducted on PNG terrestrial species as yet. However, the effects of climate change are definitely showing on the coastlines. Rise in sea level is starting to displace people in low lying islands. Furthermore, coral bleaching, an effect of high temperatures and increased carbon dioxide in oceans was observed from the PNG waters in 1996 " [Davies, J.M, Dunne R.P, Brown, E.B, 1997, Coral bleaching and elevated sea-water temperature in Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, 1996, Mar. Freshwater Res., 1997, 48, 513–6] . In the case of the introduced species, since the 1950’s, 26 species of fresh water fish were introduced into PNG, out of which 11 species are now established in the fresh water systems and competes for resources with the 214 native fresh water species. The Mozambique tilapia("Oreochromomis mossambica") was introduced in 1954, as a protein supplement " [Coates, D 1989. Review of Aquaculture and Freshwater Fisheries in Papua New Guinea. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANISATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, ] . . Currently, the tilapia is very widespread and important as food for some communities. However, it has a negative effect on indigenous fauna in lakes and rivers because of its prolific breeding and bottom feeding habit. Furthermore, studies have shown that the over the years the there has been a decrease in the native fish catch and an increase in the introduced tilapia " [Dudgeon, D 1994. The influence of riparian vegetation on macroinvertebrate community structure and functional organization in six new Guinea streams Hydrobiologia 294 : 6 5-85 ] .
Much have been achieved in conservation in PNG, however, the challenges are many and thereforethe responsible government agencies must maintain dialogue with NGO’s and any other interested parties so that conservation efforts are addressed in a systematic manner to achieve the common goal of conservation. The framework for conservation is already in the constitution and this should empower responsible agencies to carry out enforcement and regulation activities to ensure that PNG does not compromise her natural resources for environmental degrading development projects. Furthermore, there is a countrywide need for information distribution so that the local people are aware of the impacts of their activities on the environment.
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