Rishabha Deva or Aadinatha was born more than 5000 years ago, ca. 3000 B.C.E. He is considered the first
Tirthankarof Jainismand referred to with the honorific prefix Lord.
Rişhabha (other names used: Rişhabh, Rişhabhanāth, Rishabh Dev,Rushabh, Rushabhdev, Rishabha devar, Adhi Bagvan ,Adinath or Adishwar)
According to Jain beliefs, Rishabha was the first Tirthankar of the present age ("Avasarpini"). Because of this, he had the name of Ādināth - The first lord. He became a
Siddha- a liberated soul which has destroyed all of its karma.
Rishabh has been derieved from Sanskrit and it means morality, it's often confused with Sanskrit word "Vrishabha" that means bull.
Rishabh was born to King Nabhi raja and Queen Marudevi at
Ayodhyain the Ikshvakuclan. According to Jain beliefs, Rishabh existed before civilizationdeveloped. He taught people agriculture, tending of animals, cooking, and more. He had one hundred and one sons, and also one hundred and one pet dogs, which some books describe as being similar to the modern breed of dalmatians. His eldest son - Bharat- was a chakravartiultimate emperor - the conqueror of the known world. In the later part of his life he retired to become a monk and attained nirvana. Since he became a siddha, he is occasionally worshipped. According to the Jain beliefs, India was named Bhārata-varsha or Bhārata after him. His second son was Bahubali, whose statue stands at Shravanabelagola, Karnatakaas well as at Karkala. Marudevi mother of adinath was the first person to achieve nirvanaor moksha- even before Rishabh himself. Rishabh's grandson Marichi's soul later became Mahavira. He attained 'kevalgnan' or infinite knowledge at Palitanaand attained liberation (moksh or nirvana) at Ashtapadmountain in Himalayas.
Descriptions from Jain Texts
* According to
Trilokasara::धम्मो वि दयामूलो विणिम्मियो आदिबह्मेण:"(The "first Brahmā" (Lord Rishabha) established the (ordinary) dharma based on compassion.)"
*In Jain tradition, he is more than a Tirthankar. As a king, he is credited with development of several innovations affecting the society, as transition was being made from a simple to a more complex society. According to Vrihat-svayambhuu stotra::प्रजापतिर्यः प्रथमं जिजीविषुः शशास कृष्यादिसु कर्मसु प्रजाः :"(As first
Prajapati, he taught people who wanted to earn a living various trades.
culptures and mentions
Rişhabha is venerated by many Jains through his statutes. Some features of his statues are:
*Long Hair: The ancient idols of Rishaba all show him long shoulder length hair.
**This is referred to by Acharaya RavisheNa in Padma-PuraNa: :वातोद्धूता जटास्तास्य रेजुराकुलमूर्तयः. धूमल्व इव सद्ध्यान वह्निसक्तस्य कर्मणः:"(Blowing in the wind, the locks of his hair looked as if they were smoke coming out the fire burning the karmas.)"
**The Vaishnava text Bhāgavata-Puraņa also mentions the locks of hair of Rishaba: :कुटिल जटिल कपिशकेशभूमिभारा
Rishabha has been mentioned in the Hindu text of
Bhagavatha-Puranaas an Avatarof Vishnu. He is mentioned in all the Vaishnava/Shaiva Puraņas, as well as in some other texts.According to Bhāgavata,he was bourn to show the people of this world the path of salvation.It was he who adwised the people to follow the path of eternal bliss,instead of induliging in a life of worldly pleasures and enjoyment.He is the founder and promoter of sramanic culture.In the depth study of the vedasand puranas,which contain numerous references to Rishabha.
The Bhāgavata says: :अष्टमे मेरुदेव्यां तु नाभेर्जात उरूक्रमः. दर्शयन वर्म धीराणां सर्वाश्रमनमस्कृतम्:"(In the womb of Merudevi, wife of Nabhi, Rishaba had his eighth avatara. He showed himself in a form that is to be worshipped by all Shramanas.)"
Bhāgavata calls him "शरीर मात्र परिग्रह " (body his only possession), "गगन परिधानः " (wearing the sky), वातरशना (wearing the wind).
Jainism is a Shramana Paramparā, ie, a monastic tradition, as opposed to orthodox Hinduism, which is a Vedic Paramparā; this also is what the Bhāgavata Purana mentions above.
Some of the attributes of Adinath are similar to
Shivaof Hinduism, long hair, association with bull (the mark of Adinath), meditation in the Himalayas (Ashtapad in Jain tradition is identified with Kailash), etc.
Famous temples dedicated to Rishabha
* Adishwar Temple,
* Adishwar temple,
* Adinath temple,
* Adinath temple,
* Adinath temple,
* Adinath at Rikhabdeo near Udaipur, Rajasthan
* Adinath Bhagvan Temple, Mahrauli, Delhi
* Bhagawan Adinath Temple,
* Adinath Bhagvan Temple, Ponnur Hill, Tamilnadu
* Adishwar temple, Walkeshwar, Mumbai
Archaeology: Notable Pratimas of Rishabha
* Pre-Kushana Mathura sculpture
* Kushana images from Mathura
* Bronze from
Chausa hoard, 1st cent CE
* Bronze from
Akota hoard, 6th cent CE
* Monumental figure at Bavangaja, Badvani, 10th cent
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