Greek mythology, Elysium (Greek: polytonic|Ἠλύσια πεδία) was a section of the Underworld (the spelling "Elysium" is a Latinization of the Greek word "Elysion"). The Elysian Fields, Elysian Plains or Fields of Asphodel, were the final resting place of the souls of the heroic and the virtuous.
Elysium is an obscure and mysterious name that evolved from a designation of a place or person struck by lightning, "enelysion, enelysios."
Walter Burkert, "Greek Religion", 1985. p. 198.] This could be a reference to Zeus, the god of lightning, so "lightning-struck" could be saying that the person was blessed (struck) by Zeus (lightning). Scholars have also suggested that Greek "Elysion" may instead derive from the Egyptian term "ialu" (older "iaru"), meaning "reeds," with specific reference to the " Reed fields" (Egyptian: "sekhet iaru" / "ialu"), a paradisaical land of plenty where the dead hoped to spend eternity.
The ruler of Elysium varies from author to author;
Pindarnames the ruler as Kronos, released from Tartarus and ruling in a palace::"And those that have three times kept to their oaths,:Keeping their souls clean and pure,:Never letting their hearts be defiled by the taint:Of evil and injustice,:And barbaric venality,:They are led by Zeus to the end::To the palace of Kronos
Other authors claim that Kronos remained in Tartarus for all eternity, and the judge was another, sometimes
In classical literature
Homeric passages in particular established for Greeks the nature of the Afterlife: the dreamed apparition of the dead Patroclusin the " Iliad" and the more daring boundary-breaking visit in Book 11 of the " Odyssey". Greek traditions concerning funerary ritual were reticent, but the Homeric examples encouraged other heroic visits, in the myth cycles centered around Theseusand Heracles. [ Joseph Campbell, "The Hero with a Thousand Faces", 1948.pn] [Carl A.P. Ruck and Danny Staples, "The World of Classical Myth", 1994.pn]
The Elysian Fields lay on the western margin of the earth, by the encircling stream of
Oceanus, and there the mortal relatives of the king of the gods were transported, without tasting death, to enjoy an immortality of bliss ("Odyssey" 4.563). Lesser spirits were not quite as fortunate: an eerie passage describes the twittering bat-like ghosts of Penelope's slain suitors, led by Hermes: :"down the dank:"mouldering paths and past the Ocean's streams they went:"and past the White Rock and the Sun's Western Gates and past:"the Land of Dreams, and soon they reached the fields of asphodel:"where the dead, the burnt-out wraiths of mortals make their home"("Odyssey" 24.5-9, translation by Robert Fagles). Hesiodrefers to the Isles of the Blessed ("makarôn nêsoi") in the Western Ocean (" Works and Days"). Walter Burkert notes the connection with the motif of far-off Dilmun: "Thus Achilles is transported to the White Isle, which may refer to Mount Teideon Tenerife, whose volcano is often snowcapped and as the island was sometimes called the white isle by explorers, and becomes the Ruler of the Black Sea, and Diomedesbecomes the divine lord of an Adriaticisland." Pindarmakes it a single island::"And those that have three times kept to their oaths,:Keeping their souls clean and pure,:Never letting their hearts be defiled by the taint:Of evil and injustice,:And barbaric veniality,:They are led by Zeus to the end::To the palace of Kronos,:Where soothing breezes off the Ocean:Breathe over the Isle of the Blessed::All around flowers are blazing with a :Dazzling light::Some springing from the shining trees,:Others nourished by the water from the sea::With circlets and garlands of flowers they:Crown their hands,:Ruled by the steadfast councils of:Rhadamanthys::Rhadamanthys, :The great Judge,:Whom the Father,:The husband of Rhea,:Whose throne is higher than all::The great Father keeps him by his side,:His loyal advisor.:Peleus and Kadmos both are there,:And Akhilleus, brought there by his mother,:After she had conquered the heart of Zeus with her:Prayers"
In Elysium where fields of the pale liliaceous
asphodel, and poplars grew, there stood the gates that led to the house of "Ais" (in Attic dialect " Hades").
Aeneid, Aeneas, like Heraclesand Odysseusbefore him, travels to the underworld. Virgildescribes an encounter in Elysium between Aeneasand his father Anchises. Virgil's Elysium knows perpetual spring and shady groves, with its own sun and lit by its own stars: "solemque suum, sua sidera norunt" ("Aeneid", 6.541).
In post-classical literature
Elysium was a pagan expression that passed into the usage of the
Christian patristicwriters as a synonym for paradise.
In Dante's epic "
The Divine Comedy", Limbois purposefully described to much resemble the Elysian Fields. This is due in large part to Limbo's being described as the resting place of, among others, virtuous pagans who lived before the time of Christ. Being the first and uppermost layer of Hell, Limbo is closed off from God; the mood is one of sadness, since heaven is close yet unattainable.
Renaissance, the heroic population of the Elysian Fields tended to outshine its formerly dreary pagan reputation; the Elysian Fields borrowed some of the bright allure of paradise. In Paris, the Champs-Élyséesretain their name of the Elysian Fields, first applied in the late 16th century to a formerly rural outlier beyond the formal parterregardens behind the royal French palace of the Tuileries.
Renaissance, as images of Valhallaentered the popular European imagination, an even cheerier Elysium evolved for some poets. Sometimes it is imagined as a place where heroes have continued their interests from their lives. Others suppose it is a location filled with feasting, sport, song; Joy is the "daughter of Elysium" in Friedrich Schiller's ode "To Joy".
William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" shipwrecked Viola is told "This is Illyria, lady.", "And what should I do in Illyria? My brother he is in Elysium." is her answer: "Elysium" for her and her first Elizabethan hearers simply means Paradise. Similarly, in Mozart's opera " The Magic Flute", Elysium is mentioned in Act II during Papageno's solo while he describes what it would be like if he had his dream girl: "Des Lebens als Weiser mich freun, Und wie im Elysium sein." ("Enjoy life as a wiseman, And feel like I'm in Elysium.")
New Orleansneighborhood of Elysian Fields in Tennessee Williams' "A Streetcar Named Desire" is the declassé purgatory where Blanche Dubois lives with Stanley and Stella Kowalski. New Orleans' Elysian Fields provides the second act setting of Elmer Rice's " The Adding Machine".
In the fiction of
J. R. R. Tolkien, the Elysian Undying Lands, the home of the gods, elves, and a select few others, can only be reached by crossing the western sea, much as one would have to cross the stream of Oceanusto reach the Fortunate Isles.
In his poem
Middlesex, John Betjemandescribes how the heroine Elaine hurries"... Out into the outskirt's edges,Where a few surviving hedgesKeep alive our lost Elysium - rural Middlesexagain".The poem, considered by many to be one of his best, harks back to a time when the suburbs of modern London( Perivaleand Harrow-on-the-Hill, for example) were fields and meadows, with all the pastoral imagery that they convey.
Spring and All, William Carlos Williamsdescribes a dying woman's "elysian slobber/upon/the folded handkerchief".
In his poem
An Old Haunt, Hugh McFaddensets an Elysian scene in Dublin's St. Stephen's Greenpark. [ Hugh McFadden, "Cities of Mirrors (Beaver Row Press, Dublin), 1984".pn]
Very slowly solitude slips round me
in St. Stephen's Green. I rest:
see pale salmon clouds blossom.
I'm back in the fields of Elysium.
Los Angeles, California, "Elysian Park" is the name of a 600-acre public open space area -- the second largest park in Los Angeles-- established in 1781, the year of the city's founding. It retains much of the idyllic natural chaparraland coastal sage scrub present in the area since prehistoric times, in addition to hiking trails, picnic areas, barbecue pits, a small man-made lake, a children's play area, and baseball diamonds referred to as, "The Elysian Fields".
David Gemmell's Parmennion series ("Lion of Macedon" and "Dark Prince") and his Troy trilogy, his characters refer to Elysium as the "Hall of Heroes," a Valhalla-like connotation.
* Elysium is the name given to a volcanic region of
Marsand one of its volcanoes.
* "Elysia" is a genus of sea slugs.
* Elysian is the name of an inter departmental multi-art form competition held at an Engineering College, Pune Institute of Computer Technology (PICT), in
Pune, Maharashtra, India.
In classical music
* Elysium is referenced in the
Schillerpoem which inspired Beethoven's Ode to Joy(9th symphony, 4th movement) Freude, schöner Götterfunken,Tochter aus Elysium,wir betreten feuertrunken,Himmlische, dein Heiligtum!Deine Zauber binden wieder,was die Mode streng geteilt:alle Menschen werden Brüder,wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt.
Appx. English Translation:
Joy, beautiful spark of the gods, Daughter of Elysium, Touched with fire, to the portal, Of thy radiant shrine, we come. Your sweet magic frees all others, Held in Custom's rigid rings. All men on earth become brothers, In the haven of your wings.
* Elysium is also referenced in Mozart's well known Opera "Die Zauberflöte" (The Magic Flute). It is in Act II when Papageno is feeling very melancholy because he doesn't have a sweetheart or wife and he is drunk singing the song that could be called "Den Mädchen" (The Girls).
The Lyrics in German for the verse referring to Elysium are:
Dann schmeckte mir Trinken und Essen;
Dann könnte' ich
Mit Fürsten mich messen,
Des Lebens als Weiser mich freun,
Und wie im Elysium sein.
Then drink and food would taste good to me;
Then I could Measure myself with princes,
Enjoy life as a wiseman,
And feel like I'm in Elysium.
In contemporary music
* "Elysian Fields" is the title of a song by the metal band
Megadethfrom the their album Youthanasia. It is about souls sentenced to eternal damnation fighting to storm heaven.
*"Elysian Fields" is a
New York City-based rock band formed in 1995.
* Mary Chapin Carpenter's album 'Between Here and Gone' contains the song 'Elysium', where, following a long personal journey, paradise is found in the heart of her soulmate.
Eliziumis the title of an album by Fields of the Nephilim. The album contains track-titles such as '(Paradise Regained)' and lyrics including "over to the window, where the night has become Elizium for the sleepless souls" and references to "some kind of Heaven" (from 'At the Gates of Silent Memory'); whilst an overall theme of voyages towards a blissful afterlife/otherworld dominates the entire album.
* Elysium is the title of a dance and happy hardcore music track by
Scott Brown (DJ). The chorus line lyrics have potential links to interpersonal, spiritual, and higher-order concepts or ideologies.
* Elysium is a song by the Band
*"Devoured Elysium" is a song by
Vital Remainsfrom their album Dechristianize, released in 2003.
Portisheadhas a song entitled Elysium on their 1997 self-titled album.
Wings Of Severancehas a song called Elysium on their self-titled album.
The Velvet Teen's second full-length album was entitled Elysium.
* In the movie Gladiator, "Elysium" is the name of the song played during Maximus's death. The film shows the character walking through fields of crops. It is ambiguous whether this is supposed to be Elysium or his family farm, it is likely that it represents both.
* A song by the Irish Post-Rock band
God is an Astronaut, is called Elysian Fields
* The video to the song "It Means Nothing" by the Stereophonics shows the spirits of the dead in white robes walking through fields of crops to be taken away in hot air balloons
David Gray's song The One I Lovehas the lyrics "Don’t see Elysium, Don’t see no fiery Hell"
* Hardcore band named Elysia from Sacramento, CA
* A song titled "Elysium" appears on the album Wonderful by British 90's band Madness
* A song titled "Elysium" appears on Phoenix, Az rock band Vayden's album - "Children of Our Mistakes"
* A death-metal Band from Germany called [http://www.my-elysium.de Elysium]
* A punk-metal band from Tampa, FL is called Elysium.
Doctor Who, Davros, creator of the Dalekswas said to have been lost at the Gates of Elysium during the first year of the Time War, when his command ship was swallowed by the Nightmare Child.
*In the fourth season of the anime
Sailor Moon, the guardian of dreams, Helios, resides in Elysion. In the manga version of that plotline, Elysion is equally important to the arc.
*In the third and fifth seasons of the anime
Digimon, Dukemonhas an attack called "Final Elysium", where he fires a red beam from his Shield.
*In the Hades arc of both the anime and manga of Saint Seiya, the bronze saints infiltrate Elysion to rescue Athena from Hades.
Gladiator (2000 film)Maximus: "Three weeks from now, I will be harvesting my crops. Imagine where you will be, and it will be so. Hold the line! Stay with me! If you find yourself alone, riding in the green fields with the sun on your face, do not be troubled. For you are in Elysium, and you're already dead!" [cite web|url=http://www.script-o-rama.com/movie_scripts/g/gladiator-script-transcript-russell-crowe.html |title=Gladiator Script |publisher=Script-o-rama.com |date= |accessdate=2008-09-04]
* [http://www.google.com/custom?q=Elysian&hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&oe=ISO-8859-1&safe=active&client=pub-8168503353085287&cof=FORID:1%3BGL:1%3BBGC:FFFFFF%3BT:%23000000%3BLC:%230000ff%3BVLC:%23663399%3BALC:%230000ff%3BGALT:%23008000%3BGFNT:%230000ff%3BGIMP:%230000ff%3BDIV:%23336699%3BLBGC:336699%3BAH:center%3B&domains=NewAdvent.org&sitesearch=NewAdvent.org&start=0&sa=N Catholic Encyclopaedia]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.