Johann Jakob Balmer

Johann Jakob Balmer

Infobox Scientist
name = Johann Jakob Balmer
box_width =


image_width =150px
caption = Johann Jakob Balmer
birth_date = May 1 1825
birth_place = Lausen, Switzerland
death_date = March 12 1898
death_place = Basel
residence =
citizenship =
nationality = Switzerland
ethnicity =
field = mathematics
work_institutions =
alma_mater = University of Basel
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for =
author_abbrev_bot =
author_abbrev_zoo =
influences =
influenced =
prizes =
religion =
footnotes =

Johann Jakob Balmer (May 1 1825 – March 12 1898) was a Swiss mathematician and an honorary physicist.

Life and work

He was born in Lausen, Switzerland, the son of a Chief Justice also named Johann Jakob Balmer. His mother was Elizabeth Rolle Balmer, and he was the oldest son. During his schooling he excelled in mathematics, and so decided to focus on that field when he attended university.

He studied at the University of Karlsruhe and the University of Berlin, then completed his Ph.D. from the University of Basel in 1849 with a dissertation on the cycloid. Johann then spent his entire life in Basel, where he taught at a school for girls. He also lectured at the University of Basel. In 1868 he married Christine Pauline Rinck at the age of 43. The couple had a total of six children.

Despite being a mathematician, he is not remembered for any work in that field; rather, his major contribution (made at the age of sixty, in 1885) was an empirical formula for the visible spectral lines of the hydrogen atom the study of which he took up at the suggestion of Eduard Hagenbach also of Basel [cite book|last=Magie|first=William Francis|title=A Source Book in Physics|publisher=Harvard University Press|location=Cambridge, Mass|year=1969 p 360] . Using Ångström's measurements of the hydrogen lines, he arrived at a formula for computing the wavelength as follows:

:lambda = frac{ h m^2 }{ m^2 - n^2 }

for "n" = 2, "h" = 3.6456×10−7 m, and "m" = 3, 4, 5, 6, and so forth. In his 1885 notice he referred to "h" as the "fundamental number of hydrogen." Balmer then used this formula to predict the wavelength for "m" = 7 and Hagenbach informed him that Ångström had observed a line with wavelength 4968.1 Å. Two of his colleagues, H. W. Vogel and Huggins, were able to confirm the existence of other lines of the series for the spectrum of hydrogen of white stars.

Balmer's formula was later found to be a special case of the Rydberg formula, devised by Johannes Rydberg.

: frac{1}{lambda} = R_H ( frac{1}{n_1^2} - frac{1}{n_2^2} )

with R_H being the Rydberg constant for hydrogen, n_1 = 2 for Balmer's formula, and n_2 > n_1.

A full explanation of why these formulas worked, however, had to wait until the presentation of the Bohr model of the atom by Niels Bohr in 1913.

Johann Balmer died in Basel.

Honors

*Balmer lines and Balmer series are named after him.
*Balmer crater on the Moon is named after him.

References

External links

*


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Johann Jakob Balmer — (* 1. Mai 1825 in Lausen, Kanton Basel Landschaft; † 12. März 1898 in Basel) war ein Schweizer Mathematiker und Physiker. Inha …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Johann Jakob Balmer — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar …   Wikipedia Español

  • Johann Jakob Balmer — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Balmer. Johann Jakob Balmer né le 1er mai 1825 à Lausen et mort le 12 mars 1898 à Bâle était un physicien et mathématicien suisse. En 1885, Ån …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Balmer, Johann Jakob — ▪ Swiss mathematician born May 1, 1825, Lausanne, Switz. died March 12, 1898, Basel       Swiss mathematician who discovered a formula basic to the development of atomic theory and the field of atomic spectroscopy.       A secondary school… …   Universalium

  • Balmer , Johann Jakob — (1825–1898) Swiss mathematician Born in Lausanne, Switzerland, Balmer was not a professional scientist but worked as a school teacher in Basel from 1859. In 1885 he discovered that there was a simple mathematical formula that gave the wavelengths …   Scientists

  • Johann Balmer — Johann Jakob Balmer Pour les articles homonymes, voir Balmer. Johann Jakob Balmer né le 1er mai 1825 à Lausen et mort le 12 mars 1898 à Bâle était un physicien et mathématicien suisse. En 188 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Balmer (Cratère) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Balmer. Balmer Localisation Astre Lune Coordonnées 20°  18’ …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Balmer (cratere) — Balmer (cratère) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Balmer. Balmer Localisation Astre Lune Coordonnées 20°  18’ …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Balmer — ist der Familienname von: Dres Balmer (* 1949), Schweizer Autor Hans Balmer (1903–1996), Schweizer Organist und Pianist Jack Balmer (1916–1984), englischer Fußballspieler Jean François Balmer (* 1946), Schweizer Schauspieler Johann Jakob Balmer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Balmer — is a surname, and may refer to:People* Edwin Balmer, American science fiction writer * Florian Balmer, independent software developer living in Switzerland * Jack Balmer, English football player * Johann Jakob Balmer, Swiss mathematician and… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”