- Ugric languages
Ugric or Ugrian languages IPAEng|ˈjuːɡrɨk, ˈjuːɡriən are a branch of the Finno-Ugric
language family. The term derives from Yugra.
They include three languages: Hungarian (Magyar), and the
Ob-Ugriclanguages, Khanty (Ostyak) and Mansi language(Vogul). Their common Proto-Ugric language was probably spoken from the end of the 3rd millennium BCuntil the first half of the 1st millennium BCFact|date=April 2008, in Western Siberia, east from the southern Ural mountains.
* Distinct verb conjugations according to the transitivity of the verb. It is sometimes termed as “definite” versus “indefinite” conjugation, because also the
definitenessof the object can play a role when selecting between the two
* Verbal Prefixes - modify the meaning of the verb in both concrete and abstract ways
Examples from Mansi
ēl(a) - 'forwards, onwards, away'
jōm- 'to go, to stride' ēl-jōm- 'to go away/on' tinal- 'to sell' ēl-tinal- 'to sell off'
χot - 'direction away from something and other nuances of action intensity'
min- 'to go' χot-min- 'to go away, to stop' roχt- 'to be frightened' χot-roχt- 'to take fright suddenly'
Examples from Hungarian
el - 'away, off'
ugrik 'to jump' elugrik 'to jump away' mosolyog 'to smile' elmosolyodik 'to start to smile'
ki - 'out (of)'
ugrik 'to jump' kiugrik 'to jump out' olvas 'to read' kiolvas 'to read out'
(In Hungarian, the
citation formof verbs is the 3rd person singular form, which is given here, which doesn't have any suffixes.)
* Riese, Timothy: Vogul. Languages of the World/Materials 158, [http://www.lincom.at Lincom Europa] , 2001. ISBN 3-89586-231-2
* Törkenczy, Miklós: Hungarian Verbs & Essentials of Grammar. Passport Books, 1997. ISBN 0-8442-8350-9
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