- Photographic printing
Photographic printing is the process of producing a final image for viewing, usually on chemically processed sensitized paper, from a previously prepared photographic negative, from a positive transparency or slide, or a
Printing from a Negative
The process consists of three major steps, performed in a photographic
darkroomor within an automated photo printing machine:
# "Exposure" of the image onto the sensitized paper using a
contact printer or enlarger
# "Processing" of the
latent imagethrough a multistep chemical immersion process.
## "Development" of the exposed image. This step reduces the silver halide in the latent image to metallic silver.
## "Stopping" development by neutralizing, diluting or removing developing agent.
## "Fixing" the final print by dissolving remaining unexposed/undeveloped silver halide from the light-sensitive emulsion.
## "Washing" thoroughly to remove chemicals used in processing, protecting the finished print from fading and decay.
# If made on glossy paper, ferrotyping to enhance the reflective gloss.
# Optional "Toning" of the print through additional chemical processes that replace all or part of the reduced silver in the image with other pigments.
# "Texturing and drying" of the final print.
Optionally after fixation, the paper is treated with a "hypo-eliminator" to ensure complete removal of the fixative, which would otherwise compromise the long term stability of the image. In processing color prints additional steps are added to form the color pigments from precursors in the different color-sensitive layers of the emulsion.
Printing from a Slide or Transparency
Printing from a slide or transparency is similar to printing from a negative except that additional processing steps are added to form a "reversal" print.
Initial development of the print results in a negative image. This development is not followed by fixation, but rather the reduced silver of the negative image is chemically removed from the paper. Since the paper has not been fixed, the unreduced silver halide remains in the emulsion. To form the positive image, the paper is then exposed to light, which creates a latent image in the unreduced silver halide coating. This latent image is developed and fixed to form the positive image.
Printing from a Digital image
Digital photographyallows, even encourages people to take more photographs. Most of these photos will be viewed on computer monitors, televisions, Digital photo frames, and online Photo sharingsites. Some will be printed at home using Inkjet printers and more specialized Photo printers. For true Photographic prints, image files can be taken to “1 hour” photo finishing locations which have digital minilabs or uploaded to Online photo finishing sites which then mail you your prints. Some Chain stores combine these services allowing you to upload your pictures and specify which local store you want to pick the prints up at one hour later.
List of photographic processes
Photographic print toning
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