dogs (the correct German plural is Spitze, though Spitzen is commonly used in the United States) are a type of dog, characterized by long, thick, and often white fur, and pointed ears and muzzles. The tailis usually curled over the dog's back.
The exact origins of Spitz-type dogs are not known, though most of the Spitz-types seen today originate from the
Arcticregions. The type was described as "Canis pomeranus" by Johann Friedrich Gmelinin his revision of Systema naturaein 1788 (printed in English in 1792.) [Linnaeus, C. (translated and revised by R. Kerr). 1792. The Animal Kingdom; or, zoological system of the celebrated Sir Charles Linnaeus. Class I. Mammalia and Class II. Birds. Being a translation of that part of the Systema Naturae, as lately published with great improvements by Professor Gmelin, together with numerous additions from more recent zoological writers and illustrated with copperplates. J. Murray, London, 644 pp.]
There is no archaeological evidence showing transition stages between the
wolfand the often-similar Spitz-type dogs. Skeletal remains up to 5,000 years old suggest it is far more likely that the ancestors of Spitz types mated with wolves. In recent genetic testing of dog breeds, many Spitz-types were found to be in the group closest to wolves, presumed to be the oldest types of dogs. [cite web |url= http://www.americanscientist.org/template/AssetDetail/assetid/55869/page/1
title= Genetics and the Shape of Dogs; Studying the new sequence of the canine genome shows how tiny genetic changes can create enormous variation within a single species
accessmonthday= 05/06 |accessyear= 2008 |last= Ostrander |first= Elaine A. |date= September-October 2007 |work= American Scientist (online) |publisher= www.americanscientist.org |pages= page 2, chart page 4]
Humans have intentionally mated Spitz types with wolves in more recent times to achieve or maintain the wolf-like appearance of breeds such as the Alaskan Malamute.
About three thousand years ago, dogs began to migrate from the Arctic into temperate
Europe, North America, Asia, and to a lesser extent, Africa.
Skeletal remains around 2,000 years old unearthed in
Switzerlandindicate that Spitz-type dogs have inhabited Central Europefor millennia. These dogs are almost certainly the ancestors of the European Spitz-types, such as the German Spitzand Schipperke.
Many Spitz-types also migrated into
Siberiaand Mongolia. Over the centuries, many of these dogs were transported by humans to Japan, most likely from Manchuria. [Japan Kennel Club "SPITZ" [http://www.jkc.or.jp/modules/worlddogs/entry.php?entryID=92&categoryID=5] ] These Asian Spitz types are the ancestors of today's breeds such as the Chow Chowand the Akita Inu.
The larger and more powerful breeds such as the
Karelian Bear Dogand the Norwegian Elkhoundwere used for big game hunting, helping humans kill mooseand brown bear.
Smaller breeds such as the
Finnish Spitzand the Lundehundwere used in Scandinaviato hunt birds and smaller mammals.
The largest of all the Spitz types, notably the
Canadian Eskimo Dogand the Greenland Dog, were used to pull sleds up until the 19th century. During that century, when fur trappingbecame a lucrative business, people began to realize that sizedid not necessarily relate with endurance, and the smaller Siberian Huskycame to be used more frequently in Canadaand Alaska. The Finnish Lapphundwas used by the Sami people.
Adaptation to the Arctic
Spitz types are well suited to living in harsh northern
climates. They often have an insulating, waterproof undercoatthat is denser than the topcoat to trap warmth.
Small ears help reduce the risk of
frostbite, and thick fur that grows on the paws protects the dogs from sharp ice.
However, many Spitz-type breeds retain wolf-like characteristics such as independence, suspiciousness, and aggression towards unfamiliar humans or other dogs, and can therefore require much
trainingbefore they become manageable. Some, such as the Karelian Bear Dog, are almost impossible to train as companion dogs.
Companions and toys
The charming look of the Spitz-type, with its thick fur, fluffy ruff, curled tail and small muzzle and ears, have caused several people to create non-working types designed to be companions or
lap dogs. This trend is most evident in the tiny Pomeranian, which was originally a much larger dog closer to the size of a Keeshondbefore being bred down to make an acceptable court animal. The Keeshond, the Wolfspitzvariation of the German Spitz, widely known as the national dog of the Netherlands, is an affectionate and loyal, albeit very energetic, pet.
Other Spitz types which have been bred away from working uses are the
American Eskimo Dog, the Alaskan Klee Kai, the German Spitz, the Pomeranian, and even the Papillon.
List of Spitz-type dog breeds
This list might not be complete and is, at best, an educated guess from experts and dog fanciers based on the physical characteristics of the breeds. Some, such as the Papillon, exhibit the tail, coat, and head of a Spitz dog, but its ears more closely resemble
spaniels although being uprightlike the Spitz. In the future, genetic studies might better clarify the relationship among various breeds. Note that dogs listed here might also be classified as toy dogs, herding dogs, sled dogs, and in other types.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.