- Yehoshua Bar-Hillel
Yehoshua Bar-Hillel ( _he. יהושע בר-הלל; born 1915 in
Vienna; died 1975 in Jerusalem) was a philosopher, mathematician, and linguist at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, best known for his pioneering work in machine translationand formal linguistics.
Born Oscar Westreich, he was raised in
Berlin. In 1933 he emigrated to Palestine with the Bnei Akivayouth movement, and briefly joined the kibbutzTirat-Zvi before settling in Jerusalem and marrying Shulamith.
World War II, he served in the Jewish Brigadeof the British Army. He fought with the Haganahduring the Israeli War of Independence, losing an eye.
Bar-Hillel received his PhD in Philosophy from the
Hebrew Universitywhere he also studied mathematics under Abraham Fraenkel, with whom he eventually coauthored "Foundations of Set Theory" (1958, 1973).
Bar-Hillel was a major disciple of
Rudolf Carnap, whose "Logical Syntax of Language" much influenced him. He began a correspondence with Carnap in the 1940s, which led to a 1950 postdoc under Carnap at the University of Chicago, and to his collaborating on Carnap's 1952 "An Outline of the Theory of Semantic Information".
Bar-Hillel then took up a position at
MIT, leaving in 1953 just before Noam Chomsky's arrival. At MIT, Bar-Hillel was the first academic to work full-time in the field of Machine Translation; he organised the first International Conference on Machine Translation in 1952. Later he expressed doubts that general-purpose fully-automatic high-quality machine translation would ever be feasible. He was also a pioneer in the field of information retrieval.
In 1953, Bar-Hillel joined the
philosophydepartment at the Hebrew University, where he taught until his untimely death at age 60. His teachings and writings strongly influenced an entire generation of Israeli philosophers and linguists, including Asa Kasherand Avishai Margalit. In 1953, he founded a pioneering algebraic-computational linguistic group, and in 1961 he contributed to the proof of the pumping lemmafor context-free languages(sometimes called the Bar-Hillel lemma). Bar-Hillel helped found the Hebrew University's department of Philosophy of Science. From 1966 to 1968 Bar-Hillel presided over the International Association of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science.
Bar-Hillel's daughter Maya Bar-Hillel is a cognitive psychologist at the
Hebrew University, known for her collaborations with Amos Tverskyand for her role in critiquing Bible codestudy. His other daughter, Mira Bar-Hillel, is the property and planning correspondent for the London Evening Standard. His granddaughter, Gili Bar-Hillel, is the Hebrew translator of the Harry Potterseries.
*1958 - (with Abraham Fraenkel) "Foundations of Set Theory". 2nd ed. (also with
Azriel Levyand Dirk van Dalen), 1973.
*1964 - "Language and Information"
*1970 - "Aspects of Language: Essays and Lectures on Philosophy of Language, Linguistic Philosophy and Methodology of Linguistics"
*1972 - "Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science" (Editor)
*1975 - "Pragmatics of Natural Languages" (Editor)
* Encyclopedia of Linguistics: [http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/WJHutchins/Bar-Hillel-2005.pdf Yehoshua Bar-Hillel.]
* " [http://ilit.umbc.edu/SergeiPub/bar-hillel.pdf Bar-Hillel and Machine Translation: Then and Now.] "
* [http://www.tau.ac.il/humanities/cohn/activities/bar_hillel.html Bar-Hillel Colloquium.]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,819777,00.html?promoid=googlep Translation Trouble] : "Time" Magazine article from 1954.
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