Brønsted–Lowry acid-base theory

Brønsted–Lowry acid-base theory

In chemistry, the Brønsted–Lowry acid-base theory is an acid-base theory. It was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923. In this system, an acid is defined as any chemical species (molecule or ion) that is able to lose, or "donate" a hydrogen ion (proton), and a base is a species with the ability to gain or "accept" a hydrogen ion (proton). It follows that if a compound is to behave as an acid, donating a proton, there must be a base to accept the proton. So the Brønsted–Lowry concept can be defined by the reaction:acid + base ightleftarrows conjugate base + conjugate acid.The conjugate base is the ion or molecule remaining after the acid has lost a proton, and the conjugate acid is the species created when the base accepts the proton. The reaction can proceed in either forward or backward direction; in each case the acid donates a proton to the base.

Water is amphoteric and can act as an acid or as a base. In the reaction between acetic acid, CH3CO2H, and water, H2O, water acts as a base.:CH3CO2H + H2O ightleftharpoons CH3CO2- + H3O+The acetate ion, CH3CO2-, is the conjugate base of acetic acid and the hydronium ion, H3O+, is the conjugate acid of the base, water.

Water can also act as an acid, for instance when it reacts with ammonia. The equation given for this reaction is::H2O + NH3 ightleftharpoons OH- + NH4+in which H2O donates a proton to NH3. The hydroxide ion is the conjugate base of water acting as an acid.

A strong acid, such as hydrochloric acid, dissociates completely. A weak acid, such as acetic acid, may be partially dissociated; the acid dissociation constant, p"K"a, is a quantitative measure of the strength of the acid.

A wide range of compounds can be classified in the Brønsted–Lowry framework: mineral acids and derivatives such as sulfonates, phosphonates, etc., carboxylic acids, amines, carbon acids, 1,3-diketones such as acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate or Meldrum's acid and many more.

A Lewis base, defined as an electron-pair donor, can act as a Brønsted–Lowry base as the pair of electrons can be donated to a proton. This means that the Brønsted–Lowry concept is not limited to aqueous solutions. Any donor solvent, S, can act as a proton acceptor.:AH + S: ightleftarrows A- + SH+Typical donor solvents used in acid-base chemistry, such as dimethyl sulphoxide or liquid ammonia have an oxygen or nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons that can used to form a bond with a proton.

Brønsted acidity of some Lewis acids

Some Lewis acids, defined as electron-pair acceptors, also act as Brønsted–Lowry acids. For example, the aluminium ion, Al3+ can accept electron pairs from water molecules, as in the reaction:Al3+ + 6H2O → Al(H2O)63+The aqua ion formed is a weak Brønsted–Lowry acid.:Al(H3O)62+ + H2O ightleftharpoons Al(H2O)5OH2+ + H3O+ .....Ka = 1.7 x 10-5The overall reaction is described as acid hydrolysis of the aluminium ion.

However not all Lewis acids generate Brønsted–Lowry acidity. The magnesium ion similarly reacts as a Lewis acid with six water molecules:Mg2+ + 6H2O → Mg(H2O)62+but here no protons are exchanged since the Brønsted–Lowry acidity of the aqua ion is negligible (Ka ~ 10-12).

Boric acid also exemplifies the usefulness of the Brønsted–Lowry concept for an acid which does not dissociate, but does effectively donate a proton to the base, water. The reaction is:B(OH)3 + 2H2O ightleftharpoons B(OH)4- + H3O+Here boric acid acts as a Lewis acid and accepts an electron pair from the oxygen of one water molecule, which in turn donates a proton to a second water molecule and therefore acts as a Brønsted acid.

ee also

*Acid-base reaction theories
*Base (chemistry)
*Lewis acid
*Lewis base

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory — In chemistry, the Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid base theory, proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.[1][2] In this system, Brønsted acids and Brønsted bases are defined, by which an acid is a… …   Wikipedia

  • acid-base theory — Any of several theories that give rise to alternative definitions of acids and bases. The original theory was based on Svante Arrhenius s electrolytic theory of solutions and involved the dissociation of water into hydrogen and hydroxide ions. To …   Universalium

  • Acid — This article is about acids in chemistry. For the drug, see Lysergic acid diethylamide. For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). Acidity redirects here. For the novelette, see Acidity (Novelette). Acids and Bases …   Wikipedia

  • acid–base reaction — ▪ chemistry Introduction       a type of chemical process typified by the exchange of one or more hydrogen ions, H+, between species that may be neutral (molecules, such as water, H2O; or acetic acid, CH3CO2H) or electrically charged (ions, such… …   Universalium

  • Acid–base reaction — An acid base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. Several concepts exist which provide alternative definitions for the reaction mechanisms involved and their application in solving related problems. Despite… …   Wikipedia

  • Brønsted–Lowry theory — ▪ chemistry also called  proton theory of acids and bases        a theory, introduced independently in 1923 by the Danish chemist Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and the English chemist Thomas Martin Lowry, stating that any compound that can transfer… …   Universalium

  • acid–base catalysis — ▪ chemistry       acceleration of a chemical reaction by the addition of an acid or a base, the acid or base itself not being consumed in the reaction. The catalytic reaction may be acid specific (acid catalysis), as in the case of decomposition… …   Universalium

  • Martin Lowry — Thomas Martin Lowry Born 26 October 1874(1874 10 26) Low Moor, Bradford, UK …   Wikipedia

  • Conjugate acid — Within the Brønsted–Lowry acid base theory (protonic), a conjugate acid is the acid member, HX, of a pair of two compounds that transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton. A conjugate acid can also be seen as the chemical substance… …   Wikipedia

  • base — base1 /bays/, n., adj., v., based, basing. n. 1. the bottom support of anything; that on which a thing stands or rests: a metal base for the table. 2. a fundamental principle or groundwork; foundation; basis: the base of needed reforms. 3. the… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”