Bromeliaceae

Bromeliaceae

Taxobox
name = Bromeliaceae


image_width = 250px
image_caption = Pineapple, a bromeliad
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Liliopsida
ordo = Poales
familia = Bromeliaceae
familia_authority = Juss.
range_

subdivision_ranks = Subfamiles
subdivision =
* Bromelioideae
* Pitcairnioideae
* Tillandsioideae

Bromeliaceae (the bromeliads) is a family of monocot flowering plants of around 2,400 species native mainly to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa.Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The Plant Book. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.] The family includes both epiphytes, such as Spanish moss "Tillandsia usneoides", and terrestrial species, such as the pineapple "Ananas comosus". Many bromeliads are able to store water in a "tank" formed by their tightly-overlapping leaf bases. However, the family is diverse enough to include the tank bromeliads, grey-leaved epiphytic "Tillandsia" species which gather water only from leaf structures called trichomes, and a large number of desert-dwelling succulents.

Bromeliaceae are often called the pineapple plant.

The largest bromeliad is "Puya raimondii", which reaches 3–4 m tall in vegetative growth with a flower spike 9–10 m tall, and the smallest is probably Spanish moss.

History

Bromeliads are one of the more recent plant groups to have emerged, presumed to have evolved at the close of the Cretaceous, over 65 million years ago. Fossilized bromeliads have been dated back to roughly 30 million years ago. The greatest number of primitive species reside in the Andean highlands of South America suggesting a beginning there. The west African species "Pitcairnia feliciana" is the only bromeliad not endemic to the Americas, and is thought to have reached Africa via long-distance dispersal approximately 12 million years agocite journal
author=Givnish, T.J., Kendra C. Millam, Timothy M. Evans, Jocelyn C. Hall, J. Chris Pires, Paul E. Berry, Kenneth J. Sytsma
year= 2004
title= Ancient Vicariance or Recent Long-Distance Dispersal? Inferences about Phylogeny and South American–African Disjunctions in Rapateaceae and Bromeliaceae Based on ndhF Sequence Data
journal= International Journal of Plant Sciences
volume= 165
pages= S35–S54
url=http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/resolve?doi=10.1086/421067&erFrom=4791065377387339640Guest | doi = 10.1086/421067
format= dead link|date=June 2008 – [http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=intitle%3AAncient+Vicariance+or+Recent+Long-Distance+Dispersal%3F+Inferences+about+Phylogeny+and+South+American%E2%80%93African+Disjunctions+in+Rapateaceae+and+Bromeliaceae+Based+on+ndhF+Sequence+Data&as_publication=International+Journal+of+Plant+Sciences&as_ylo=2004&as_yhi=2004&btnG=Search Scholar search]
] .

Humans have been using bromeliads for thousands of years. The Incas, Aztecs, Maya and others used them extensively for food, protection, fiber and ceremony, just as they are still used today. European interest began when Spanish conquistadors returned with pineapple, which became so popular as an exotic food that the image of the pineapple was quickly adapted into European art and sculpture. In 1776, the species "Guzmania lingulata" was introduced to Europe, causing a sensation among gardeners unfamiliar to such a plant. In 1828, "Aechmea fasciata" was brought to Europe, followed by "Vriesea splendens" in 1840. These transplants were successful enough that they are still among the most widely grown bromeliad varieties.

In the 1800s breeders in Belgium, France and the Netherlands started hybridizing plants for wholesale trade. Many exotic varieties were produced up until the First World War which halted breeding programs and led to the loss of some species. The plants experienced a resurgence of popularity after World War II. Since then, Dutch, Belgian and North American nurseries have largely expanded bromeliad production.

Description

Bromeliads are a widely varied group of organisms, adapted to a number of climates. Foliage takes many different shapes, from needle thin to broad and flat, symmetrical to irregular, spiky and soft. The foliage, which usually grows in a rosette, is the most widely patterned and colored of any plant in the world. Leaf colors range from maroon, through various shades of green, to gold, with many colors in between. Many varieties have variegated leaves with red, yellow, white and cream variegations. Others may be spotted with purple, red, or cream, while others have different colors on the tops and bottoms of the leaves.

The inflorescence produced by bromeliads are also regarded as considerably more diverse than any other plant family. Some flower spikes may reach 10 meters tall while others only measure 2–3 mm across. Upright stalks may be branched or simple with spikes retaining their color from two weeks up to twelve months, depending on species. In some species the flower remains unseen, growing deep in the vase of the plants.

Root systems vary according to plant type. Terrestrial bromeliad species have complex root systems which gather water and nutrients while epiphytic bromeliads only grow hard, wiry roots to attach themselves to trees and rocks.

Some bromeliads are faintly scented while others are heavily perfumed. Blooms from the species "Tillandsia cyanea" resemble the smell of clove spice.

One study found 175,000 bromeliads per hectare (2.5 acres) in one forest; that many bromeliads can sequester 50,000 liters (more than 13,000 gallons) of water." [http://judson.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/03/18/pineapple-dreams/index.html?8ty&emc=ty Pineapple Dreams] ", The Wild Side, Olivia Judson, "The New York Times", March 18, 2008]

A wide variety of organisms take advantage of the pools of water trapped by bromeliads. A study of 209 plants from the Ecuadorian lowlands identified 11,219 animals, representing more than 300 distinct species, many found only on bromeliads; for instance, some species of ostracods, small salamanders approximately 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) in length, tree frogs, and even other species of bromeliads.
Jamaican bromeliads are home to "Metopaulias depressus", a reddish-brown crab 2 centimeters (three quarters of an inch) across, which has evolved social behavior to protect its young from predation by "Diceratobasis macrogaster", a species of damselfly whose larvae live in bromeliads.

Distribution

Plants in the Bromeliaceae family are widely represented in their natural climates across the Americas. They can be found at altitudes from sea level to 4200 meters, from rainforests to deserts. Approximately half the species are epiphytes, some are lithophytes, and some are terrestrial. Accordingly, these plants can be found in the Andean highlands, from northern Chile to Colombia, in the Peruvian coastal deserts, in the cloud forest regions of South and Central America, and in the tropical climate region of Florida.

Genera

Images of bromeliads




Cultivation and uses

Only one bromeliad, the pineapple "Ananas comosus", is a commercially important food crop. Many other bromeliads are popular ornamental plants, grown as both garden and house plants. There are also artificial bromeliads, which can be used as an alternative to the real ones for purposes of decorating.

Notes

External links

* [http://palm-trees.org Palm Trees, Small Palms, Cycads, Bromeliads & Tropical Plants] Site with 1000's of large, high quality photos of Bromeliads and associated flora. Includes information on habitat and cultivation.
* LUTHER, H. E. (2002) [http://www.selby.org/clientuploads/research/Bromeliaceae/Binomial_BSI_2002.pdf An Alphabetical List of Bromeliad Binomials] [http://www.selby.org The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens,] Sarasota, Florida, USA. Published by [http://www.bsi.org/ The Bromeliad Society International] .
* [http://delta-intkey.com/angio/www/bromelia.htm Bromeliaceae] in [http://delta-intkey.com/angio/ L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval.] Published by [http://delta-intkey.com Delta-intkey] (2002-06-18)
* [http://www.bsi.org/ The Bromeliad Society International]
* [http://www.bromeliads.info/ Bromeliad Care Information]
* [http://fcbs.org/butcher/Puya_raimondii.htm "Puya raimondii" photos]
* [http://www.worldbotanicalgardens.com The World Botanical Gardens]
* [http://www.keyessentials.co.uk Bromeliad/Tillandsia specialists]


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