- Breaching experiment
In the field of
social psychology, a breaching experiment is an experimentthat seeks to examine peoples' reactions to violations of commonly accepted social rules or norms. Breaching experiments are most commonly associated with ethnomethodology, and in particular the work of Harold Garfinkel. The conduct of a breaching experiment is sometimes referred to as "Garfinkeling."
Erving Goffman's seminal study "Behavior in Public Places" gives some classic examples of behavioral norms, such as "it is inconsiderate to litter - put your garbage in the trash can". A breaching experiment studies people's reaction to an experimenter who breaks this kind of small, everyday rule. The strength of the reaction is taken as an indication of the strength of the rule.
* "The inexplicable do-gooder": Social science researcher
Earl R. Babbiewrites that "it is a social rule that ordinary citizens should not pick up garbage from the street, or mend street signs, or otherwise fix problems." [Babbie, Earl. 2001. The Practice of Social Research (9th Edition). Wadsworth ISBN 0-534-62029-9 - chapter 10, according to [http://www.stanford.edu/~mrosenfe/soc_method_syllabus.htm] ] Babbie claims that people have negative reactions when they see somebody fixing something that is not his/her "job" to fix; in some cases, altruistic actions are viewed as personal intrusions.
* A famous breaching experiment was conducted on the
New York City subwayin the 1970s, when experimenters boarded crowded trains and asked able-bodied but seated riders, with no explanation, to give up their seats. Reportedly, the experimenters themselves were deeply troubled by being involved in such a seemingly minor violation of a social norm. The experiment was supervised by Stanley Milgram. [cite news |first=Michael |last=Luo |title='Excuse Me. May I Have Your Seat?'; Revisiting a Social Experiment, And the Fear That Goes With It |url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20F15FE3A540C778DDDA00894DC404482 |work=The New York Times |date=2004-09-14]
Interview usage of experiments
Breaching experiments are sometimes conducted on job or educational
interviews, particularly of candidates for medical schooladmission. This type of interview is known as a "stress interview," and is used to verify that the interviewee can handle high-stress interpersonal situations, such as when one party behaves in a clearly inappropriate manner. For example, physicians are often asked inappropriate questions by patients, but must keep a calm temper even when this happens. Sometimes these interview devices are considered inappropriate and may constitute harassment.
* Garfinkel, Harold, 1985 [Reprint] . Studies in Ethnomethodology. Polity Press.
* Goffman, Erving, 1966. Behavior in Public Places. Free Press.
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