Fluosol is an
artificial bloodsubstitute which is milky in color. Its main ingredients are perfluorodecalinor perfluorotributylaminein Fluosol-DA and Fluosol-43 respectively, perfluorochemicals suspended in an albumin emulsion. It was developed in Japanand first tested in the United Statesin 1982, its recipients being individuals who refused blood transfusions on religious grounds. Fluosol serves as a dissolving medium for oxygen. In order to "load" sufficient amounts of oxygen into it, patients must breathe pure oxygen by mask or must be in a hyperbaric chamber. While initially promising for therapy of heart attack, carbon monoxide poisoning, and sickle-cell anemia, research also indicates that Fluosol may depress the patient's immune system. [Marieb, Elaine Nicpon. Human Anatomy & Physiology. 4th ed. Menlo Park, California: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 1998. 650.]
Fluosol is the only blood substitute approved to date by the
FDAfor medical use in the circulatory system (NDA N860909, 1989). The U.S.FDA and eight other countries approved Fluosol indicated to “reduce the amount of allogeneic blood units transfused.” From 1989 to 1992, Fluosol was used in more than 40,000 human subjects. Due to difficulty with the emulsion storage of Fluosol use (frozen storage and rewarming), its popularity declined and its production ended.
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