- Flash blindness
Flash blindness is visual impairment during and following exposure to a light flash of extremely high intensity. [ [http://www.hf.faa.gov/docs/508/docs/cami/0107.pdf Laser Pointers:Their Potential Affects on Vision and Aviation Safety (April 2001)FAA] ] It may last for a few seconds to a few minutes.
For example, in everyday life, the subject of a flash photograph can be temporarily flash blinded. The bright light overwhelms the eye and only gradually fades. A bright spot or spots may be seen for many minutes.
Flash blindness is caused by bleaching (oversaturation) of the retinal pigment. As the pigment returns to normal, so too does sight. In daylight the eye's pupil constricts, thus reducing the amount of light entering after a flash. At night, the dark-adapted pupil is wide open so flash blindness has a greater effect and lasts for a longer time.
Temporary vs. permanent
Is flash blindness temporary or permanent?
* Some sources such as
NATOand the U.S. Department of Defense state that "flash blindness" can be temporary or permanent. [ [http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/doddict/data/f/02109.html first strike(DOD) The first offensive move of a war. (Generally associated with nuclear operations.)] ]
*Other sources restrict the use of the word to temporary, reversible vision loss: "...These are, in order of increasing brightness: dazzle, after image formation, flash blindness, and irreversible damage." [ [http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/archive/7120/7120e3.htm BMJ No 7120 Volume 315 Editorial Saturday 29 November 1997 Blinding laser weapons Still available on the battlefield] ] The U.S.
Federal Aviation Administrationin Order 7400.2f defines it as "Generally, a temporary visual interference effect that persists after the source of the illumination has ceased." [ [http://www.faa.gov/atpubs/AIR/air2901.html#28-1-5] ]
Because there appears to be no consensus definition, one should be especially clear about which sense(s) of the phrase are meant. For example, using the phrase "temporary flash blindness" when discussing everyday flash photography emphasizes that the condition will disappear without ill effect.
Because vision loss is sudden and takes time to recover, flash blindness can be hazardous. At some sporting events such as
figure skating, fans are cautioned to not use flash photography so as to avoid distracting or disorienting the athletes. In aviation, pilots are trained to recover from bright nearby lightningflashes. Also in aviation, there is concern about lasersand bright searchlightscausing temporary flash blindness and other vision-distracting effects in pilots who are in critical phases of flight such as approach and landing.
The bright initial flash of a
nuclear weaponis the first indication of a nuclear explosion, traveling faster than the blast wave or sound wave. "A 1-megaton explosion can cause flash blindness at distances as great as 13 miles on a clear day, or 53 miles on a clear night. If the intensity is great enough, a permanent retinal burn will result." [ [http://www.atomicarchive.com/Effects/effects13.shtml Flashblindness | Effects of Nuclear Weapons | atomicarchive.com] ]
Flash blindness and pain
It is unclear whether pain is directly associated with flash blindness. Reaction to flash blindness can be discomforting and disorienting. The retina has no pain receptors [< [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/specials/eclipse99/355066.stm BBC NEWS Tuesday, 17 August, 1999, 16:13 GMT 17:13 UK Safety in sight total eclipse 300] ] , so reports of pain may be due to more psychological reactions.
Welders can get a painful condition called
arc eye. While caused by bright light, the welder's flash is of longer duration and emits ultraviolet rays that can affect the cornea. Flash blindness, in contrast, can be caused by a single very brief exposure which oversaturates the retina, and is not usually accompanied by reports of pain.
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