Geophysics, a major discipline of Earth sciences, is the study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods, especially by seismic, electromagnetic, and radioactivity methods. It calls heavily upon other fields of science such as math, physics, and computer science. History of geophysics has been motivated by theoretical and practical issues. The term of geophysics was probably first used in Germany, where it appeared in scientific writings of the mid-19th century. The word geophysics was first used by Fröbel [Buntebarth, G. (1981) "Zur Entwicklung des Begriffes Geophysik", Abhandlungen der Braunschwiegischen Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft 32, 95-109 ] [ Beck, H. (1961) Alexander von Humboldt, 2 Vols (Wiesbaden: Steiner) ] as "geophysik" in 1834. The theories and techniques of geophysics are employed extensively in the planetary sciences in general.

The field of geophysics includes the branches of:
* Seismology (earthquakes and elastic waves)
* Gravity and geodesy (the Earth's gravitational field and the size and form of the Earth)
* Atmospheric science, which includes::* Atmospheric electricity and terrestrial magnetism (including ionosphere, Van Allen belts, telluric currents, Radiant energy, etc.):* Meteorology and Climatology, which both involve studies of the weather.:* Aeronomy, the study of the physical structure and chemistry of the atmosphere.
* Geomagnetism (study of the Earth's magnetic field)
* Geothermometry (heating of the Earth, heat flow, volcanology, and hot springs)
* Hydrology (ground and surface water, sometimes including glaciology)
* Physical oceanography
* Tectonophysics (geological processes in the Earth)
* Geodynamics (numerical study of the inner Earth)
* Exploration and engineering geophysics (see also Archaeological geophysics)
* Geophysical Engineering
* Glaciology
* Petrophysics
* Applied geophysics
* Mineral Physics
* Engineering geology
* Archaeological geophysics


See also

* Fluid dynamics
* Society of Exploration Geophysicists
* American Geophysical Union
* European Geosciences Union
* Canadian Geophysical Union
* Important publications in geophysics(geology)
* important publications in Geophysics(physics)

External links

* [ USGS Geomagnetism Program]
* [ Case studies from TerraDat Geophysics documenting the use in shallow engineering and environmental applications]

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