A wrinkle is a ridge or crease of a surface. It usually refers to folds on fabric or
clothes, or on the skinof an organism; the folds are generally random and do not exhibit any repeating pattern. In skin or other foldable material a wrinkle or fold may be permanent if the material is folded the same way each time.
Skin wrinkles typically appear as a result of
agingprocesses such as glycationor, temporarily, as the result of prolonged (more than a few minutes) immersion in water. Wrinkling in skin is caused by habitual facial expressions, aging, sun damage, smoking, poor hydration, and various other factors. [ Anderson, Laurence. 2006. "Looking Good, the Australian guide to skin care, cosmetic medicine and cosmetic surgery". AMPCo. Sydney. ISBN 0-85557-044-X. ] With prolonged water exposure, the outer layer of skin starts to absorb water. The skin doesn't expand evenly, however, and this causes your skin to wrinkle. Depletion of water in the body, as occurs with dehydration, can also cause this puckering of the skin. [ [http://www.ascp.com/publications/tcp/1999/aug/prevention.shtml The Consultant Pharmacist: August 1999 | Prevention and Management of Dehydration ] ]
Smoking is a key factor in the development of wrinkles. [NIH [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1615259 Facial Wrinkling By Smoking Status] ] . Smoking robs the complexion of oxygen, decreasing blood circulation to facial skin and resulting in premature lines and wrinkles. Also, anyone puffing on a cigarette is essentially doing a lot of repetitive facial movements that add even more wrinkles. [HBH [http://www.hormones-beauty-health.com/anti-wrinkle.html Anti-Wrinkle Tips] ]
Treatments and products (including
anti-aging creams) promising to reduce, remove, or prevent age-related wrinkles are big business in many industrialized countries. Despite great demand, most such products and treatments have not been proven to give lasting or major positive effects. Stretching the skin via a face lift will remove some wrinkles. Tretinoin
Although the exact mode of action of tretinoin is unknown, current evidence suggests that tretinoin decreases cohesiveness of follicular epithelial cells. Additionally, tretinoin stimulates mitotic activity and increased turnover of follicular epithelial cells. [cite journal| title=Topical retinoids in the treatment of photoaging| year=2005| month=Jun| pmid=17166212| author=Stefanaki C, Stratigos A, Katsambas A| journal= J Cosmet Dermatol| volume=4(2)| pages=130–4| doi=10.1111/j.1473-2165.2005.40215.x]
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium "Clostridium botulinum". Botox is manufactured by Allergan Inc (U.S.) for both therapeutic as well as cosmetic use. Besides its cosmetic application, Botox is used in the treatment of other conditions including migraine headache and cervical
dystonia(spasmodic torticollis) (a neuromuscular disorder involving the head and neck) [cite journal | author=Brin MF, Lew MF, Adler CH, Comella CL, Factor SA, Jankovic J, O'Brien C, Murray JJ, Wallace JD, Willmer-Hulme A, Koller M | title=Safety and efficacy of NeuroBloc (botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia | journal=Neurology | year=1999 | pages=1431–8 | volume=53 | issue=7 | pmid=10534247] Restylane
Restylane is a non-animal, stabilized hyaluronic acid produced by Q-med in Sweden. The wrinkle- resolving gel is worldwide the most commonly used dermal filler since it was introduced in 1996. Particularly effective is it when used in a special injection technique; The Fern Pattern Technique. This technique was introduced by the Dutch cosmetic doctor Tom van Eijk in Sweden in 2005. The article on the subject was published in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, August 2007.
The wrinkles that occur in skin after prolonged exposure to water are sometimes referred to as "pruney fingers" or water aging. This is a temporary
skincondition where the skin on the palms of the hand or feet becomes wrinkly. It is caused when the keratin-laden epithelialskin is immersed in water. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/science/k2/homework/s95618.htm Dr Karl's Homework - Skin Wrinkles in Water (26/1/2000) ] ] The skin expands and the resultant larger surface area forces it to wrinkle. Usually the tips of the fingers and toes are the first to wrinkle because of a thicker layer of keratin and an absence of hairs which secrete the protective oil called sebum. Wrinkled fingers often occur after taking a showeror bath and last up to fifteen minutes afterwards, until the water has evaporated or is absorbed into the body. [ [http://www.soundmedicine.iu.edu/archive/2003/mystery/prunySkin.html Medical Mystery: Pruny Skin ] ] [ [http://www.kidshealth.org/kid/talk/qa/wrinkly_fingers.html Why Does My Skin Get Wrinkly in Water? ] ] [ [http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=401345 Google Answers: wrinkled hands in water ] ]
Prune fingers is named for the skins' resemblance to the wrinkled, rough surface of a prune.
Animals with wrinkles
), as they are a trait associated with juvenile animals.
Fabric wrinkles occur as a result of cloth being bunched or folded unevenly. Wrinkled clothing is often undesirable in situations such as
job interviews, or formal social events. There are products such as irons and fabric sprays to remove wrinkles from cloth. Some more modern fabrics have been engineered to be wrinkle-free or wrinkle-resistant by incorporating water-resistant polymers. [ [http://www.slate.com/id/2159363/fr/rss/ Why do clothes wrinkle? - By David Grosz - Slate Magazine ] ]
* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/skinaging.html Medline: Skin Aging]
* [http://www.antiagingtreatments.blogspot.com Anti Aging Treatments]
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