- Ivan Sechenov
Ivan Mikhaylovich Sechenov ( _ru. Ива́н Миха́йлович Се́ченов;
August 1, 1829, Tyoply Stan (now Sechenovo) near Simbirsk, Russia– November 2, 1905, Moscow), was a Russian physiologist, named by Ivan Pavlovas "The Father of Russian physiology". Sechenov authored major classic " Reflexesof the Brain" introducing electrophysiologyand neurophysiologyinto laboratoriesand teaching of medicine.
*1843-1848 Main Military Engineering School in
military engineerin Kiev
*1850-1856 studies of medicine at
*1856-1859 studies in
M.D.from the Military-Medical Academy of St. Petersburg
*1860-1870 professor at the
St.PetersburgMedico-Surgical Academy. Foundation of the first Russian school of physiology. Sechenov resigned to protest the rejection of Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov(the founder of immunology, the Nobel Prizelaureate of 1908)
*1870 chemical research in
Mendeleev's laboratory in St. Petersburg
*1871-1876 chair at the
Novorossiysk Universityat Odessa(where Mechnikov had been appointed Titular Professor of Zoologyand Comparative Anatomy)
*1876-1888 professor at
St. Petersburg University
equation" is introduced (from experimental evidence) for solubilityof gases
*1891-1901 professor at Moscow University
honorarymember of Russian Academy of Sciences
Sechenov's major interest was
neurophysiology(the structure of the brain). He showed that brain activityis linked to electric currentsand was the first to introduce electrophysiology. Among his discoveries was the cerebral inhibitionof spinal reflexes. He also maintained that chemicalfactors in the environment of the cell are of great importance.
Between 1856 and 1862 Sechenov studied and worked in Europe in laboratories of
Johannes Peter Mueller, Emil du Bois-Reymond, Hermann von Helmholtz( Berlin), Felix Hoppe-Seyler( Leipzig), Carl Ludwig( Vienna) and Claude Bernard( Paris).
Like several other Russian
scientistsof the period Sechenov was often in conflict with the tsarist government and conservative colleagues, but he did not emigrate. In 1866 censorship committeein St.Petersburg attempted judicialprocedures accusing Sechenov of spreading materialismand of "debasing of Christian morality".
Sechenov's work laid the foundations for the study of reflexes,
animaland human behaviour, and neuroscience.
*1860 Materialy dlya buduschey fiziologii alkogolnogo opyanenia. St. Petersburg ("Some facts for the future study of
alcohol intoxication", in Russian)
*1862 O zhivotnom elektrichestve. St. Petersburg ("On animal electricity", in Russian)
*1863 Refleksy golovnogo mozga. Meditsinsky vestnik 47-48 ("Reflexes of the brain", in Russian)
*1866 Fiziologia nervnoy sistemy. St. Petersburg ("Physiology of the
nervous system", in Russian)
*1873 Komu i kak razrabatyvat psikhologiyu. Vestnik Evropy 4 ("Who should and How to develop
Psychology", in Russian)
*1954 the area around Sechenov's birthplace was renamed Sechenovsky District of
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Moscow Medical Academywas given name of I.M.Sechenov; its campus includes memorial of Sechenov
*1956 Institute of Evolutionary Physiology in
Leningradwas reorganized as a part of USSR Academy of Sciencesand named after I.M.Sechenov
*Zusne, Leonard. 1984. Biographical Dictionary of Psychology. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-24027-2
* [http://www.uic.edu/depts/mcne/founders/page0085.html Page at The University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Neurology site]
* [http://vlp.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/people/data/per137.html Page at Max Planck Institute for the History of Science site] - part of "The Virtual Laboratory, Essays and Resources on the Experimentalization of Life"
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