- 1500-1550 in fashion
Fashion in the period 1500-1550 in Western Europe is marked the age of nudity by voluminous clothing worn in an abundance of layers (one reaction to the cooling temperatures of the
Little Ice Age, especially in Northern Europe and the British Isles). Contrasting fabrics, slashes, embroidery, applied trims, and other forms of surface ornamentation became prominent. The tall, narrow lines of the late Medievalperiod were replaced with a wide silhouette, conical for women with breadth at the hips and broadly square for men with width at the shoulders. Sleeves were a center of attention, and were puffed, slashed, cuffed, and turned back to reveal contrasting linings.
European fashion in the earlier decades of the sixteenth century was dominated by the great rivalry between
Henry VIII of England(ruled 1509-1547) and Francis I of France(ruled 1515-1547) to host the most glittering renaissancecourt, culminating in the festivities around the Field of Cloth of Gold(1520). [Ashelford, Jane: "Visual History of Dress in the Sixteenth Century", introduction] But the rising power was Charles V, king of Spain, Naples, and Sicilyfrom 1516, heir to the style as well as the riches of Burgundy, and Holy Roman Emperorfrom 1530. The inflow of gold and silver from the New Worldinto recently united Spain changed the dynamics of trade throughout Western Europe, ushering in a period of increased opulence in clothing that was tempered by the Spanish taste for sombre richness of dress that would dominate the second half of the century. [Boucher, François: "20,000 Years of Fashion"] , [Ashelford, Jane: "The Art of Dress: Clothing and Society 1500-1914", Abrams, 1996.]
Regional variations in fashionable clothing that arose in the fifteenth century became more pronounced in the sixteenth. In particular, the clothing of the Low Countries, German states, and
Scandinaviadeveloped in a different direction than that of England, France, and Italy, although all absorbed the sobering and formal influence of Spanish dress after the mid-1520s. [Boucher, François: "20,000 Years of Fashion", pages 219 and 244] .
Fabrics, furs, and trims
Linen shirts and chemises or smocks had full sleeves and often full bodies, pleated or gathered closely at neck and wrist. The resulting small frill gradually became a wide ruffle, presaging the ruff of the latter half of the century. These garments were often decorated with embroideryin black or red silk. Small geometric patterns appeared early in the period and, in England, evolved into the elaborate patterns associated with the flowering of blackwork embroidery. German shirts and chemises were decorated with wide bands of gold trim at the neckline, which was uniformly low early in the period and grew higher by midcentury.
brocades and velvets in bold floral patterns based on pomegranateand thistleor artichoke motifs remained fashionable for those who could afford them, although they were often restricted to kirtles, undersleeves and doublets revealed beneath gowns of solid-coloured fabrics or monochromatic figured silks. Yellow and red were fashionable colors. [Kybalová, Ludmila, Olga Herbenová, and Milena Lamarová: "Pictorial Encyclopedia of Fashion", 1968, page 154]
Elaborate slashing remained popular, especially in Germany, where a fashion arose for assembling garments in alternating bands of contrasting fabrics. Elsewhere, slashing was more restrained, but bands of contrasting fabric called "guards", whether in color or texture, were common as trim on skirts, sleeves, and necklines. These were often decorated with bands of embroidery or applied
passementerie. Bobbin lacearose from passementerie in this period, probably in Flanders[Montupet, Janine, and Ghislaine Schoeller: "Lace: The Elegant Web", ISBN 0-8109-3553-8] , and was used both as an edging and as applied trim; it is called "passamayne" in English inventories.Arnold, Janet, "Lost from Her Majesties Back"]
The most fashionable furs were the silvery winter coat of the
lynxand dark brown (almost black) sable. [Favier, Jean, "Gold and Spices: The Rise of Commerce in the Middle Ages", London, 1998, p. 66] .
Women's fashions of the earlier sixteenth century consisted of a long gown, usually with sleeves, worn over a "kirtle" or undergown, with a linen chemise or smock worn next to the skin.
The high-waisted gown of the late
medievalperiod evolved in several directions in different parts of Europe. In the German states and Bohemia, gowns remained short-waisted, tight-laced but without corsets. The open-fronted gown laced over the kirtle or a stomacher or plackard. Sleeves were puffed and slashed, or elaborately cuffed.
In France, England, and Flanders, the high waistline gradually descended to the natural waist in front (following Spanish fashion) and then to a V-shaped point. Cuffs grew larger and were elaborately trimmed.
Hoop skirts or
farthingales had appeared in Spain at the very end of the fifteenth century, and spread to England and France over the next few decades. Corsets (called "a pair of bodies") also appeared during this period.
A variety of
hats, caps, hoods, hair nets, and other headresses were worn, with strong regional variations.
Shoes were flat, with broad square toes.
In the first quarter of the sixteenth century, German dress varied widely from the costume worn in other parts of Europe. Skirts were cut separately from bodices, though often sewn together, and the open-fronted gown laced over a kirtle with a wide band of rich fabric, often jeweled and embroidered, across the bust. Partlets (called in German "gollers" or collars) were worn with the low-cut bodice to cover the neck and shoulders, and were made in a variety of styles. The most popular goller was a round shoulder-capelet, frequently of black velvet lined in silk or fur, with a standing neckband; this goller would remain in use in some parts of Germany into the seventeenth century and became part of
national dressin some areas. [Kõhler,"History of Costume", "Sixtenth Century"]
Narrow sleeves were worn in the earliest years of the century, and were later decorated with bands of contrasting fabric and rows of small panes or strips over puffed linings. Skirts were trimmed with bands of contrasting fabric, but were closed all around. They would be worn draped up to display an underskirt.
From 1530, elements of Spanish dress were rapidly adopted in fashionable Germany under the influence of the imperial court of Charles V. [Kõhler, "History of Costume", "Sixtenth Century"]
Dress in Holland, Belgium, and Flanders, now part of the Empire, retained a high, belted waistline longest. Italian gowns were fitted to the waist, with full skirts below.
The French gown of the first part of the century was loosely fitted to the body and flared from the hips, with a train. The neckline was square and might reveal the kirtle and chemise beneath. Cuffed sleeves were wide at the wrist and grew wider, displaying a decorated undersleeve attached to the kirtle. The gown fastened in front early, sometimes lacing over the kirtle or a stomacher, and the skirt might be slit in front or the train tucked up in back to display the skirt of the kirtle.
As a fitted style emerged under Spanish influence, the gown was made as a separate
bodiceand skirt; this bodice usually fastened at the side or the side-back with hooks and eyes or lacing.
From the 1530s, French and English fashions featured an open, square-necked gown with long sleeves fitted smoothly over a tight
corsetor "pair of bodies" and a farthingale. With the smooth, conical line of the skirt, the front of the kirtle or petticoat was displayed, and a decorated panel called a "forepart", heavily embroidered and sometimes jeweled, was pinned to the petticoat or directly to the farthingale.
The earlier cuffed sleeves evolved into "trumpet sleeves", tight on the upper arm and flared below, with wide, turned back cuffs (often lined with fur) worn over full undersleeves that might match the decorated forepart. At the very end of the period, full "round sleeves" (perhaps derived from Italian fashions) began to replace the flaring trumpet sleeves, which disappeared by the later 1550s.
Fabric or chain "girdles" were worn at the waist and hung down to roughly knee length; a tassel or small prayer book or purse might be suspended from the girdle.
The low neckline of the gown could be filled with a "partlet". Black velvet partlets lined in white with a high, flared neckline were worn pinned over the gown. Partlets of the same rich fabric as the bodice of the gown give the appearance of a high-necked gown. Sheer or opaque linen partlets were worn over the chemise or smock, and high-necked smocks began to appear; toward 1550 these might have a small standing collar with a ruffle, which would become the pleated ruff of the next period.
Hats and headgear
In France, England, and the Low Countries, black hoods with veils at the back were worn over linen undercaps that allowed the front hair (parted in the middle) to show. These hoods became more complex and structured over time.
Unique to England was the
gable hood, a wired headdress shaped like the gable of a house. In the 1500s gable headdress had long embroidered lappets framing the face and a loose veil behind; later the gable hood would be worn over several layers that completely concealed the hair, and the lappets and veil would be pinned up in a variety of ways.A simple rounded hood of the early years of the century evolved into the French hood, popular in both France and England; its arched shape sat further back on the head and displayed the front hair which was parted in the center and pinned up in braids or twists under the veil.
German women adopted hats like fashionable men's "baretts" early in the century; these were worn over caps or cauls ("colettes") made of netted cord over a silk lining. [Kõhler, "History of Costume"] Hats became fashionable in England as an alternative to the hood toward the 1540s. Close fitting caps of fur were worn in cold climates.
Linen caps called
coifs were worn under the fur cap, hood or hat.
In warmer climates including Italy and Spain, hair was more often worn uncovered, braided or twisted with ribbons and pinned up, or confined in a net. A Spanish style of the later 15th century was still worn in this period: the hair was puffed over the ears before being drawn back at chin level into a braid or wrapped twist at the nape.
First-time brides wore their hair loose, in token of virginity, and a wreath or chaplet of orange blossoms was traditional. A jeweled wreath with enameled "orange blossoms" was sometimes worn.
Jewelry and accessories
Women of wealth wore gold chains and other precious jewelry; collar-like
necklaces called "carcanets", earrings, bracelets, rings, and jewelled pins. Bands of jeweler's work were worn as trim by the nobility, and would be moved from gown to gown and reused. Large brooches were worn to pin overpartlets to the gown beneath.
A fashionable accessory was the "
zibellino", the peltof a sableor martenworn draped at the neck or hanging at the waist; some costume historians call these "flea furs". The most expensive zibellini had faces and paws of goldsmith's work with jewelled eyes.Sherrill, Tawny: "Fleas, Furs, and Fashions: "Zibellini" as Luxury Accessories of the Renaissance", in Robin Netherton and Gale R. Owen-Crocker, editors, "Medieval Clothing and Textiles", Volume 2, p. 121-150]
However, it should be noted that not all women or men were allowed to wear jewelry because of the
sumptuary lawsthat restricted wearing certain types of jewelry and luxurious fabrics, such as purple velvet, to first royalty and then nobility. The newly wealthy merchant classes who were not aristocrats could not wear jewelry on their clothing or fabrics restricted to nobles. Glovesof soft leather had short, sometimes slashed, cuffs and were perfumed.
tyle gallery - German States and the Low Countries 1500s-1520s
# wears a rose-pink brocade gown with a high belt and black collar and cuffs with a large headdress 1502-03.
# wears a black "goller" or round partlet over a gown with an organ-pleated skirt and a snug bodice trimmed with embroidery. She wears pieced sleeves derived from Italian styles with puffs at the elbows and shoulders, a heavy gold chain, and a gold filigree carcanet or necklace, 1506.
# wears a front-laced gown in the German fashion, with broad bands of contrasting materials, tight sleeves, and slashes at the elbow, 1514.
# in German fashion of 1525-30. Baretts with upturned slashed brims are worn over cauls, and sleeves are variously puffed, pieced, and slashed, with short wide cuffs extending over the hands.
# wears a front-laced grayish gown with black trim. She wears a white partlet edged in black, and her hair is confined in a net or snood, 1526.
# as a bride wears a tight-waisted gown with slashed and puffed sleeves over a high-necked chemise with a wide band at the neck. Her loose hair and the jeweled wreath of orange blossoms indicate that this is a bridal painting, 1526.
# in the Netherlands wear "barbes' or wimples with linen headdresses, 1526-30.
# of 1529 wears the linen cap and hood
tyle gallery - German States and the Low Countries 1530s-1540s
# wears a black robe with a fur lining over a black gown. She wears a close-fitting black cap, 1538.
# includes a high-waisted gown with wide sleeves trimmed with bands of contrasting fabric worn with a wide belt. Undersleeves (probably attached the kirtle) have ruffled cuffs lined in red. A black parlet is worn. The headdress consists of a decorated cap and a short, sheer veil turned up in "wings" at either cheek, 1538-39
# wears a red gown with a high waist confined with a belt. Her sleeves have broad puffs at on the upper arm and wide, open lower sleeves. Her cap or hood has a sheer veil draped over it, 1539.
# wears a front-laced full-sleeved gown of bands of red-gold brocade and black with ruffled cuffs that display the chemise cuffs beneath. Her headdress consists of a short sheer veil and embroidered hood; a red undercap or forehead band is visible at the temples, 1540s.
# wears a linen headdress and veil. Her gown is confined with a wide belt at the high waist, and she wears a black partlet that reveals a red kirtle over her high-necked chemise trimmed with gold embroidery, 1542.
# of 1542 features turned-back trumpet sleeves lined in fur and a black partlet. The high-necked chemise of fine linen has ruffles at the wrist, and a linen hood with a veil is worn.
# wears a finely pleated partlet or high-necked chemise with a high collar and small ruff beneath her gown. Her close-fitting cap may be similar to that worn by Anne of Cleves under her veil, c. 1545.
# show the painter in a black overpartlet and red velvet undersleeves, 1548.
tyle gallery - Italy and Spain 1500s-1520s
# wears a rose-colored gown with contrasting blue sleeves. She wears a sheer shoulder cape or open partlet with a dark edging, 1505.
#: A velvet gown with slashed sleeves is worn over a chemise embroidered in black silk at the neckline (visible beneath the net partlet) and in bands down the wide sleeves, Toldeo, c. 1505.
# wears a patterned gown with tied-on sleeves that show the chemise beneath. Her hair frames her face in soft waves, and back hair is confined in a small draped cap, c. 1505.
# wears a slashed sleeves tied in bows at the shoulders. Her long hair is confined in a small embroidered cap and then wrapped in a long tail down her back. She wears a fillet or "ferroniere" around her forehead.
# of floral silk has wide, puffed upper sleeves and fitted lower sleeves. Her chemise is high-necked and small frills are visible at the wrists. She wears a heavy gold chain.
# wears a gown with wide, open sleeves lined in light pink. Her high waist is accentuated with a knotted sash. The full sleeves of her chemise are gathered into ornamented bands, and she wears a broad hat that matches her gown, 1518.
# under a broad black hat, c. 1527.
tyle gallery - Italy and Spain 1530s-1540s
#, wears a floral cut velvet gown with fur-lined oversleeves over full, striped slashed undersleeves caught up with jewels, 1530.
# at the end, 1530-35.
# wears a gown with puffed upper sleeves over contrasting slashed lower or undersleeves. She wears a jeweled girdle at her natural waist. Her hair is done up in intricately knotted braids, 1536.
# wears a black gown with puffed upper sleeves. A "flea fur" with jeweled gold face is suspended from her knotted and tasselled girdle. She wears a partlet with a high collar and small ruff, and her hair is confined in a black cap, 1538.
# wears a rose gown with intricately ruched or gathered puffed upper sleeves. The tight gathers of her skirt can be seen at the front waist, 1540.
#, wife of Cosimo de' Medici, wears a gown of a boldly patterned silk with matching sleeves. She wears a gold lattice-work partlet studded with pearls and a matching snood or caul. The blackwork embroidery at the edges of her square-necked chemise can be seen beneath the parlet, 1545.
# wears a gown with wide bands of trim. Her bodice is slightly arched over the breast and slightly pointed at the waist, and her long, wide sleeves are open down the front and caught together with jeweled clasps or pins. She wears a high-neck partlet with a small ruff, 1548.
tyle gallery - England and France 1500s-1520s
# wears an early gable hood and a front-closing red gown with a fur lining or trim and fur cuffs, c. 1500.
# wears a round hood over a linen cap and a dark gown over a kirtle. Her square-necked smock has a narrow row of embroidery at the neck, and she wears a jeweled collar or carcanet and a long, heavy gold chain, 1502.
#'s marriage portrait (with Charles Brandon) in a French gown shows the cuffs of her sleeves turned back to display a lining decorated with pearls. She wears a French hood. Her undersleeves have an open seam caught with jeweled clasps or pins and her chemise sleeves are pulled through the openings in small puffs, 1516.
#, c.1525, wears a gable hood with the lappets folded up and pinned in place, and the veil hanging loosely in back. Her gown has a pattern of jewels at the neckline, and her wide sleeves are turned up to show the lining.
# wears a gable hood with a loose veil. The bodice of her gown (presumably laced at the side-back or back) is decorated with draped chains, and her smock sleeves are pulled through the open outer seam of her undersleeves in neat puffs, 1527.
# of Thomas More's family wear dark gowns laced over colored kirtles with contrasting undersleeves. 1527-28.
# wears a fur cap shaped like a gable hood. She wears a linen kerchief or capelet draped over her shoulders, and a sheer parlet, 1527-28.
# shows front and back views of English gowns and gable hood of 1528-30.
tyle gallery - England 1530s-1540s
# wears a gable hood and a chemise with geometric blackwork embroidery, 1536-37.
# of the embroidery on Jane Seymour's cuff.
# wears a patterned brown or mulberry-colored gown with full sleeves and a matching partlet lined in white, 1540 (perhaps after an earlier drawing).
# wears a black satin gown with full sleeves and black velvet partlet. Her cuffs have floral blackwork embroidery, 1540-41.
# wears a high-necked chemise with a band of blackwork at the neck. The lappets on her gable hood are solid black, and she has a fur piece draped around her shoulders, 1543.
# wears a brocade gown with red sleeve linings and a red French hood with a black veil. The edge of her square-necked chemise is visible above the neckline of her gown, 1544.
# at age 13 wears a rose-colored gown over a forepart and undersleeves of cloth of silver with patterns in looped pile. Her French hood matches her gown, 1546.
# wears a red loose gown with wide bands of applied trim. She wears a white cap with pearls and a pleated forehead cloth under a hat with an upturned brim and a feather. The collar of her gown is lined with patterned (woven or possibly embroidered) silk, 1540s.
Early in this period, men's silhouette was long and narrow, but gradually it grew wider until by the later reign of Henry the VIII the silhouette was almost square, with shoulder emphasis achieved through wide
reversand collars and large sleeves.
Throughout this period, fashionable men's clothing consisted of:
linenshirt or chemise, originally low-necked but with a higher neckline by mid-century. The neckline was gathered into a narrow band or adjusted by means of a drawstring; the tiny ruffle formed by pulling up the drawstring became wider over time, and then evolved into the ruff of the next period.
*A doublet with matching sleeves, often slashed or cut to allow the fabric of the shirt beneath to show through.
*A jerkin, usually cut low to the waist in front to reveal the doublet beneath, with full skirts to the knee.
*Hose, now usually ending above the knee, with a prominent
codpiece(both sometimes hidden under the skirts of the jerkin).
*Separate "nether-hose" or stockings held up with garters.
gown, often fur-lined for warmth and slashed, with sleeves. The gown was ankle length early in the period, but knee-length gowns were fashionable in the 1530s and '40s. Scholars, judges, doctors, and other professionals retained the ankle length gown throughout the period.
From the 1530s, a narrower silhouette became popular under Spanish influence. Collars were higher and tighter. Shoulders lost their padding and developed a slight slope. Doublet sleeves became fuller rather than tight. Jerkins closed to the neck; their skirts were shorter and slightly flared rather than full, and they displayed more of the hose. Overall the fashion was more rigid and restrained. [Kybalová, et al.: "Pictorial Encyclopedia of Fashion"]
Lower class men wore a one-piece garment called a
cottein English, tight to the waist with knee-length skirts and long sleeves over their hose.
Bright colors (reds, yellows, purples, pinks, and greens) were popular.
Hairstyles and headgear
Hair was worn chin-length early in the century, and grew shorter along with the wide silhouette.
A variety of hats were worn in the period. The German "'barett", with its turned-up brim, was fashionable through out the period, and a similar hat with a turned-up round or "halo" brim was popular in the court of Henry VIII. The "flat hat" combined a low, gathered crown with a circular brim and was worn in mid-century.
tyle gallery 1500-1510
#s over a reddish gown with dark fur trim, c. 1500.
#, c. 1500.
# of the first decade of the century. The man on the left wears hose divided into upper hose and nether hose or stockings. The man on right wears hose slashed around one thigh, with a pouched codpiece, 1500-1510.
# wears a fur-lined brocade gown over a front-laced red doublet and a low-necked shirt or chemise. He wears a red hat with an upturned brim, 1502-03.
# wears Italian fashion: a dark doublet with pink sleeves, loose hair, and a hat with a turned-up brim, 1506.
#'s hair is worn chin length. His gown has wide revers and is worn with a jeweled collar, 1509.
tyle gallery 1510s
# wears striped hose, a doublet with puffed upper sleeves, and a voluminous cloak, 1510.
# at the Vatican wear full-skirted giornea or jerkins and full sleeves over low-necked shirts or chemises, 1512.
# wears a doublet with slashed sleeves and a gown with a gray fur collar.
# wears a fur-lined gown in the German fashion and a red "barett" with a jewel in the form of a pair of compasses, 1513.
# includes a multitude of slashes in rows on doublet, hose and gown, 1514.
# wears a gown with a very wide fur collar and a broad-brimmed hat, 1519.
# wears a brocade rgown with a fur lining and slashed sleeves. The neck of his shirt is open, 1519.
# wears a high-necked shirt and a high-necked doublet under a dark gown. His hat is rounded and soft, rather than angular however they often did not by hats they made them from straw and stuck them together with stuff from the fields 1519.
tyle gallery 1520-1535
#, c. 1520-25.
#'s Young Man wears the later style of "barett", wide and flat with a slashed brim. His high neckline is accented by parallel rows of slashes, and he wears a brown gown, 1521.
# wears a doublet with full skirts to mide thigh, soft "loops" at the shoulder, and gold emboridered bands at the border over bright red hose and a prominent codpiece, Italy, 1525,
# wears a wide necked brocade doublet, a jerkin, and a fur-lined gown. His wide-necked shirt is bare visible under his doublet the left shoulder. 1527.
# wears slashed hose and sleeves in the German fashion. His gown has puffed upper sleeves and a black (probably fur) lining. His shoes have squarish toes and reach high over his instep, 1532-33.
#, French ambassador to England, wears a fur-lined calf-length gown over a black jerkin and a slashed doublet of rose-colored silk. His shoes are very square at the toes, 1533.
# wears a high-necked doublet under darker jerkin and a gown. His sleeves are paned (made in strips) and fastened with jewels. The square beard was very popular with the broad silhouette of 1534-5.
# wears a transitional costume - a wide-necked doublet with a high, banded-neckline shirt, c. 1535.
tyle gallery 1535-1550
# wears a drak slashed doublet with a standing collar and matching hose. His shirt has a small ruffle at the neck, and his hat is decorated with pairs of metal tags or aiglettes. Florence, 1535-40.
# wears a black gown lined with lynx fur over a jerkin lined in a brown fur and a reddish doublet. His shirt has an embroidered standing collar. He wears a black "halo" hat over a black coif, and the collar of the Order of the Garter, 1539-40.
# sleeves. His hat badge is inscribed in Greek "Alas! [I] yearn exceedingly" [Andrea Bayer, editor, "Painters of Reality: The Legacy of Leonardo and Caravaggio in Lombardy", Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2004, p. 124]
# in a modest costume of 1541. He wears a brown satin doublet with full, unslashed "round" sleeves under a dark gown. His shirt has a standing band with embroidery and a ruffle.
# wears a closed red ermine-lined gown with narrower shoulders and a high collar.
# wears a pinked and slashed leather jerkin and a black sword belt and hanger over a red doublet and red hose with a prominent codpiece. Germany, 1544.
# wears the leaner, narrow fashions of 1546. The shoulders are no longer wide, and the jerkin's skirts are flared but not gathered, and are shorter than the hose.
# wears a black, fur-lined gown over a black doublet, hose, stockings and shoes. His shoes have slightly rounded rather than square toes, 1548.
Shoes for men and women were flat, and often slashed and fastened with a strap across the instep. Rounded toes were worn early, and were replaced by broad, squared toes in the 1530s. Toward the middle of the century, shoes became narrower and were shaped naturally to the foot. Soft boots for riding fitted to mid-calf.
Toddler boys wore gowns until they were "breeched".
Working class clothing
# wear knee-length gowns, hose, and ankle-high shoes, c. 1505.
# wear short gowns over shirts, with hose and ankle-high shoes, Flanders, c. 1510.
#: Barefoot women wear short-sleeved, front-laced gowns with contrasting linings tucked up over knee-length chemises, with aprons and straw hats. Men wear sleeveless gowns or jerkins over their shirts and hose, c. 1510.
# is dressed like a beggar, in undyed or faded clothing. He wears a hood and carries a hat with a brim and a wicker pack on his back, c. 1510.
* [http://www.uvm.edu/%7Ehag/sca/tudor/index.html Tudor Dress: A portfolio of images] (includes a discussion of the [http://www.uvm.edu/~hag/sca/tudor/whiteband.html mysterious "white band"] )
* [http://realmofvenus.renaissancewoman.net/wardrobe/wardrobe.htm Venus' Wardrobe] (Venetian costume of the 16th century)
* [http://katerina.purplefiles.net/DOCO/Camicia%20research.htm Shirts and Camicia of the 1500s]
*Bayer, Andrea, editor: "Painters of Reality: The Legacy of Leonardo and Caravaggio in Lombardy", Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2004, ISBN 0300102755
*Boucher, François: "20,000 Years of Fashion", Harry Abrams, 1966.
*Arnold, Janet: "Lost from Her Majesties Back", the Costume Society, 1980.
*Arnold, Janet: "Queen Elizabeth's Wardrobe Unlock'd", W S Maney and Son Ltd, Leeds 1988. ISBN 0-901286-20-6 (Arnold comments in detail on the clothing in several portraits of the 1530s and '40s referenced in this article.)
*Ashelford, Jane: "The Art of Dress: Clothing and Society 1500-1914", Abrams, 1996. ISBN 0-8109-6317-5
*Ashelford, Jane. "The Visual History of Costume: The Sixteenth Century". 1983 edition (ISBN 0-89676-076-6), 1994 reprint (ISBN 0-7134-6828-9).
*Favier, Jean, "Gold and Spices: The Rise of Commerce in the Middle Ages", London, Holmes and Meier, 1998, ISBN 0841912327.
*Hayward, Maria: "Dress at the Court of King Henry VIII", Maney Publishing, 2007, ISBN 1904350704
*Hearn, Karen, ed. "Dynasties: Painting in Tudor and Jacobean England 1530-1630. New York: Rizzoli, 1995. ISBN 0-8478-1940-X.
*Kõhler, Carl: "A History of Costume", Dover Publications reprint, 1963, from 1928 Harrap translation from the German, ISBN 0-4862-1030-8
*Kybalová, Ludmila, Olga Herbenová, and Milena Lamarová: "Pictorial Encyclopedia of Fashion", translated by Claudia Rosoux, Paul Hamlyn/Crown, 1968, ISBN 1-1995-7117-2
*Montupet, Janine, and Ghislaine Schoeller: "Lace: The Elegant Web", ISBN 0-8109-3553-8
*Netherton, Robin, and Gale R. Owen-Crocker, editors, "Medieval Clothing and Textiles", Volume 2, Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK, and Rochester, NY, the Boydell Press, 2006, ISBN 1843832038
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.