name = "Rubus"
image_width = 250px
image_caption = "
divisio = Magnoliophyta
genus = "Rubus"
genus_authority = L.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = See text.
"Rubus" is a large
genusof flowering plants in the family Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae. Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are also common in the genus. The "Rubus" fruit, sometimes called a bramble fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets.
The blackberries, as well as various other "Rubus" species with mounding or rambling growth habits, are often called
brambles. However, this name is not used for those like the raspberrythat grow as upright canes, or for trailing or prostrate species such as most dewberries, or various low-growing boreal, arctic, or alpine species.
The genus "Rubus" is believed to have existed since at least 23.7 to 36.6 million years ago. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-72919/Rosales#595624.hook] ]
Examples of the hundreds, if not thousands, of species of "Rubus" include:
Rubus allegheniensis" – Allegheny Blackberry
Rubus arcticus" – Arctic Raspberry
Rubus armeniacus" – Himalayan Blackberry
Rubus caesius" – European Dewberry
Rubus canadensis" – Canadian Blackberry
Rubus chamaemorus" – Cloudberry
Rubus coreanus" - Bokbunja
Rubus cuneifolius" – Sand Blackberry
Rubus fruticosus" agg. – Blackberry
Rubus idaeus" – European Red Raspberry
Rubus leucodermis" – Whitebark Raspberry or Western Raspberry
Rubus occidentalis" – Black Raspberry
Rubus odoratus" – Flowering Raspberry
Rubus parviflorus" – Thimbleberry
Rubus pensilvanicus" – Pennsylvania Blackberry
Rubus phoenicolasius" – Wineberry
Rubus saxatilis" – Stone Bramble
Rubus spectabilis" – Salmonberry
Rubus strigosus" – American Red Raspberry
The genus also includes numerous hybrids, both natural and bred by man, such as the
Loganberry("Rubus × loganobaccus").
List of Lepidoptera that feed on Rubus
The genus "
Rubus" is a very complex one, particularly the blackberry/ dewberrysubgenus ("Rubus"), with polyploidy, hybridization, and facultative apomixisapparently all frequently occurring, making speciesclassification of the great variation in the subgenus one of the grand challenges of systematic botany. Some treatments have recognized dozens of species each for what other, comparably qualified botanists have considered single, more variable species. On the other hand, species in the other "Rubus" subgenera (such as the raspberries) are generally distinct, or else involved in more routine one-or-a-few taxonomic debates, such as whether the European and American red raspberries are better treated as one species or two. (In this case, the two-species view is followed here, with "Rubus idaeus" and "R. strigosus" both recognized; if these species are combined, then the older name "R. idaeus" has priority for the broader species.)
Molecular data has backed up classifications based on geography and
chromosome number, but following morphological data such as the structure of the leaves and stems does not appear to produce a phylogenetic classification. [cite journal | url = http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/86/1/81 | title = Phylogeny of Rubus (rosaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences | author = Lawrence A. Alice and Christopher S. Campbell | journal = American Journal of Botany | year = 1999 | volume = 86 | pages = 81–97 | doi = 10.2307/2656957 ]
The classification presented below recognizes 13 subgenera within
Rubus, with the largest subgenus ("Rubus") in turn divided into 12 sections. Representative examples are presented, but there are many more species not mentioned here.
* [http://bioweb.wku.edu/Rubus/default.asp WKU Rubus website]
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