Japanese media

Japanese media

The communications media of Japan include numerous television and radio networks as well as newspapers and magazines. For the most part, television networks were established based on the capital contribution from existing radio networks at that time. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the capital relationship between the media (such as the relationship between newspaper, radio and TV networks).

For the most part, variety shows, serial dramas, and news constitute a large percentage of Japanese evening shows. Western movies are also shown, many with a subchannel for English.

There are all-English television channels on cable and satellite (with Japanese subtitles). In areas near U.S. military bases there is often the American Forces Network radio which anyone can tune in to.

TV networks

There are 6 nationwide television networks, as follows:
# NHK (日本放送協会 Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai). NHK is a Japanese public service broadcaster. The company is financed through "viewer fees", similar to the licence fee system used in the UK to fund the BBC. Because NHK is a public broadcast network, the standpoint of NHK is impartial. In reality, NHK deliberately avoids making political comments. NHK has 2 terrestrial TV channels, unlike the other TV networks (in the Tokyo region—channel 1 ("Sōgō" (General)) and channel 3 ("Kyoiku" (Education)).
# Nippon News Network (NNN) headed by Nippon Television (日本テレビ放送網/日テレ Nihon-Terebi/Nittere; NTV). Conservative. In the Tokyo region, channel 4. Affiliated with the "Yomiuri Shimbun". In recent years, NTV has been plagued by a ratings bribery scandal, in which its Chairman, Seiichiro Ujiie, was forced to step down, and scandals over staging of news broadcasts.
# Japan News Network (JNN) headed by TBS (東京放送 Tōkyō Hōsō, Tokyo Broadcasting System). Liberal. However, the famous news program "Chikushi Tetsuya's News 23" is sometimes regarded as a "left-wing" program. The main anchor of this program, Tetsuya Chikushi, is the translator of David Halberstam's "The Powers That Be". He is also influenced by the attitude of CBS News (e.g. "60 Minutes" and Edward R. Murrow). In the Tokyo region, channel 6.
# Fuji News Network (FNN) headed by Fuji Television (フジテレビジョン; Fuji TV). Right-wing or conservative. Affiliated with the Fujisankei Communications conglomerate, which includes the "Sankei Shimbun". In the Tokyo region, channel 8.
# All-Nippon News Network (ANN) headed by tv asahi (テレビ朝日). Left-wing or liberal. Affiliated with the "Asahi Shimbun". It had a famous TV news program titled "News Station" led by main caster Hiroshi Kume for 18 years. It aired last on March 26, 2004. In the Tokyo region, channel 10.
# TV Tokyo Network (TXN) headed by TV TOKYO (テレビ東京). Focuses on economic news. Also known for its anime programs. Has ties with the "Nihon Keizai Shimbun" newspaper. In the Tokyo region, channel 12.

The political views of the networks can be summarized as follows:

See also

*Japanese television programs
*List of Japanese language television channels

Radio networks

AM radio

# NHK Radio 1, NHK Radio 2
# Japan Radio Network (JRN)—Flagship Station: TBS radio (TBSラジオ)
# National Radio Network (NRN)—Flagship Stations: Nippon Cultural Broadcasting (文化放送) and Nippon Broadcasting System (ニッポン放送)
# Radio Nikkei is an independent shortwave station broadcasts nationwide in two content channels.

FM radio

# Japan FM Network (JFN)Tokyo FM Broadcasting Co.,ltd.
# Japan FM League—J-Wave Inc.
# MegaNet—FM Interwave (InterFM)

Internet Radio

# Bible Broadcasting in Japanese [http://www.bbnradio.org/wcm4/Japanese]

See also

*Lists of radio stations in Asia


Weekly magazines

# Aera (アエラ).
# Friday (フライデー). Photo magazine.
# Josei Jishin (女性自身). For women.
# Nikkei Business (日経ビジネス). Economic magazine.
# Shuukan Asahi (週刊朝日). Liberal.
# Shuukan Economist (週刊エコノミスト). Economic magazine.
# Shuukan Kinyoubi (週刊金曜日). Strong liberal.
# Shuukan Bunshun (週刊文春). Conservative.
# Shuukan Diamond (週刊ダイヤモンド). Economic magazine.
# Shuukan Gendai (週刊現代).
# Shuukan Josei (週刊女性). For women.
# Shuukan Post (週刊ポスト).
# Shuukan Shinchou (週刊新潮). Conservative.
# Shuukan Toyo Keizai (週刊東洋経済). Economic magazine.
# Spa! (スパ!).
# Sunday Mainichi (サンデー毎日). Liberal.
# Yomiuri Weekly (読売ウィークリー).

Monthly magazines

# Bungei Shunjuu (文藝春秋). Conservative, although some say this magazine is middle.
# Chuuou Kouron (中央公論). Affiliated with the Yomiuri Shimbun. Conservative.
# Gendai (現代). Middle.
# Ronza (論座). Published by the Asahi Shimbun Company. Liberal.
# Seiron (正論). Published by the Sankei Shimbun Company. Right-wing.
# Sekai (世界). Strong Liberal.
# Shokun! (諸君!, Gentleman!). Strong Conservative.
# Ushio (潮). It has a strong connection with Soka Gakkai International.
# pumpkin. It has a strong connection with Soka Gakkai International.
# Dai San Bunmei (第三文明). It has a strong connection with Soka Gakkai International.
# Todai (灯台). It has a strong connection with Soka Gakkai International.
# Graph SGI (グラフSGI). It has a strong connection with Soka Gakkai International.


# Yomiuri Shimbun (読売新聞). Conservative. 1st ranked in daily circulation -- around 10 million per day. The Yomiuri Shimbun, being very widely circulated, takes the most popular stance. The Yomiuri exchanged a special contract with British The Times. Affiliated with Nippon TV.
# Asahi Shimbun (朝日新聞). Left of center or liberal. 2nd ranked in daily circulation -- around 8 million per day. Known for its preeminent writers as well as the frequency with which its articles are used for university admission examinations. Affiliated with TV Asahi.
# Mainichi Shimbun (毎日新聞). Liberal. 3rd ranked in daily circulation -- around 4 million per day. Affiliated with TBS.
# Nikkei Shimbun (日本経済新聞). Economic paper similar to the Wall Street Journal. 4th ranked in daily circulation - around 3 million per day. Affiliated with TV TOKYO.
# Sankei Shimbun (産経新聞). Right-wing or conservative, pro-American and anti-Chinese newspaper. 6th ranked in daily circulation -- around 2 million per day. Known as the nationalist's newspaper and upheld formidably by the right. Affiliated with Fuji TV.

There are also regional newspapers like the quasi-national Tokyo Shimbun (東京新聞) in Kanto and Chunichi Shimbun (中日新聞) in Chūbu (both owned by the Chunichi company and with a cumulative circulation that places them 4th, nationally), Nishinippon Shimbun (西日本新聞) in Kyūshū, Hokkaido Shimbun(北海道新聞) in Hokkaidō, Kahoku Shimpo (河北新報) in Tohoku, and English versions of the 5 major newspapers. Business newspapers like Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (The Business & Technology Daily News) are also widely read. The Japan Times is the only newspaper exclusively for English speakers, although other dailies, including the Yomiuri Shimbun and the Asahi Shimbun, produce English newspapers and/or provide English content on their websites. Seikyo Shimbun (聖教新聞) is the daily newspaper issued as a bulletin for Soka Gakkai International, a newly risen religion in Japan.As with other countries, surveys tend to show that the number of newspaper subscribers is declining, a trend which is expected to continue.

Advertising agencies

These play an important role in the Japanese mass media. There are two big advertisement agencies in Japan.

# Dentsu (電通). Largest Japanese advertising agency (4th worldwide). It has an enormous presence, especially in TV media. This company went public in November 2001. This company also has a strong connection to the legislative branch of Japan. Website: [http://www.dentsu.co.jp/ Dentsu]
# Hakuhodo (博報堂). 2nd largest Japanese advertising agency.

Wire service

# Jiji Press (時事通信).
# Kyodo News (共同通信).

ee also

* Cinema of Japan
* Odenbo

External links

* [http://www.kanzaki.com/jpress/newspaper.html Unofficial Guide to Japanese mass-media]
* [http://ojr.org/japan/home/section.php Japan Media Review]
* [http://www.apublicbetrayed.com Companion website] to the book "A Public Betrayed: An Inside Look at Japanese Media Atrocities and Their Warnings to the West" (ISBN 0-89526-046-8)
* [http://www.japanesestudies.org.uk/discussionpapers/McNeill.html Media Intimidation in Japan] , discussion paper by David McNeill in the [http://www.japanesestudies.org.uk "electronic journal of contemporary japanese studies"] , 27 March 2001.
* [http://www.japanesestudies.org.uk/discussionpapers/Gatzen.html Media and Communication in Japan] , discussion paper by Barbara Gatzen in the [http://www.japanesestudies.org.uk "electronic journal of contemporary japanese studies"] , 17 April 2001.
* [http://www.nhk.or.jp/strl/aboutstrl/evolution-of-tv-en/index-e.html Brief history of TV Technology in Japan] by NHK

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