A webcast is a media file distributed over the Internet using
streaming mediatechnology. As a broadcastmay either be live or recorded, similarly, a webcast may either be distributed live or recorded. Essentially, webcasting is “broadcasting” over the Internet.
The generally accepted use of the term webcast is the "transmission of linear audio or video content over the Internet".
A webcast uses
streaming mediatechnology to take a single content source and distribute it to many simultaneous listeners/viewers.
The largest "webcasters" include existing radio and TV stations who "
simulcast" their output, as well as a multitude of Internet only "stations". The term webcasting is usually reserved for referring to non-interactive linear streams or events.
Rights and licensing bodies offer specific "webcasting licenses" to those wishing to carry out Internet broadcasting using copyright material.
Webcasting is also used extensively in the commercial sector for investor relations presentations (such as Annual General Meetings), in E-learning (to transmit seminars), and for related communications activities. However, webcasting does not bear much, if any, relationship to the idea of
web conferencingwhich is designed for many-to-many interaction.
The ability to webcast using cheap/accessible technology has allowed
independent mediato flourish. There are many notable independent shows that broadcast regularly online. Often produced by average citizens in their homes they cover many interests and topics; from the mundane to the bizarre. Webcasts relating to computers, technology, and news are particularly popular and many new shows are added regularly.
"Webcasting" was first publicly described and presented by Brian Raila of GTE Laboratories at InterTainment '89, 1989, held in New York City, USA. Raila recognized that a viewer/listener need not download the entirety of a program to view/listen to a portion thereof, so long as the receiving device ("client computer") could, over time, receive and present data more rapidly than the user could digest same. Raila used the term "buffered media" to describe this concept.
Raila was joined by James Paschetto of GTE Laboratories to further demonstrate the concept. Paschetto was singularly responsible for the first workable prototype of streaming media, which Raila presented and demonstrated at the Voice Mail Association of Europe 1995 Fall Meeting of October, 1995, in Montreux, Switzerland.
Alan Saperstein(Visual Data, now known as Onstream Media (Nasdaq:ONSM), was the first company to feature streaming video in June 1993 with HotelView, a travel library of 2 minute videos featuring thousands of hotel properties worldwide.
November 7, 1994, WXYC, the college radiostation of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hillbecame the first radio station in the world to broadcast its signal over the internet. [cite news|title=Communications: Picture the scene|last=Grossman|first=Wendy|date=1995-01-26|work=Online|location=Manchester, United Kingdom|publisher="The Guardian"|pages=4|accessdate=2008-06-26] [cite press release|title=WXYC announces the first 24-hour real-time world-wide Internet radio simulcast|publisher=WXYC 89.3 FM|date=1994-11-07|url=http://www.wxyc.org/about/first/release.html|accessdate=2008-04-05] The term webcasting was coined (in the early/mid 1990s) when webcast/streaming pioneers Mark Cuban( Audionet), Howard Gordon(Xing Technologies), William Mutual(ITV.net) and Peggy Miles(InterVox Communications) got together with a community of webcasters to pick a term to describe the technology of sending audio and video on the Net...that might make sense to people. The term netcasting was a consideration, but one of the early webcast community members owned a company called NetCast, so that term was not used, seeking a name that would not be branded to one company. Discussions were also conducted about the term with the National Association of Broadcastersfor their books - Internet Age Broadcaster I and II, written by Peggy Miles and Dean Sakai.
The actual word "webcast" was coined by
Daniel Keys MoranFact|date=August 2007 in his 1988 novel "The Armageddon Blues.": "... DataWeb News had done an in-depth on it not two weeks ago, and tourists had been trekking up into the New York hills ever since the webcast." -- page 191 of the Bantam paperback.
Translated versions including
Subtitlingare now possible using SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language.
Virtually all the major broadcasters have a webcast of their output, from the
BBCto CNNto Al Jazeerato UNTV Webcastin television to Radio China, Vatican Radio, United Nations Radio and the World Servicein radio.
A notable webcast took place in September
1999to launch NetAid, a project to promote Internet use in the world's poorest countries. Three high profile concerts were to be broadcast simultaneously on the BBC, MTVand over the Internet; a Londonconcert at Wembley Stadium featuring the likes of Robbie Williams, George Michael; a New Yorkconcert featuring Bonoof U2and Wyclef Jean; a Genevaconcert.
More recently, Live8 (
AOL) claimed around 170,000 concurrent viewers (up to 400 Kbit/s) and the BBC received about the same (10 Gbit/s) on the day of the 7 July 2005 bombings in London. The growth of webcast traffic has roughly doubled, year on year, since 1995 and is directly linked to broadband penetration.
Connecting Media was one of the first companies to do live webcasting using a special IFP Van (Internet Field Production) dedicated to webcasting.
Today, webcasts are being used more frequently and by novice users. Live webcasts are allowing viewing of presentations, business meetings, and seminars etc. for those that
telecommuterather than attend. Such sites offer live broadcastingas an affordable solution to public speakingevents that expands the viewing audience to anyone that has an internet connection.
Live sporting events, both local and national, have also quickly become frequent webcast subjects. With regard to smaller events such as
Little League, amateur sports, small college sports, and high school sports, webcasting allows these events to have full audio or video coverage online when they may not be able to book standard radio or TV time. Websites like Meridix Webcast Network, Texas Sports Radio Network, SportsJuice, and others allow local schools, teams, and broadcasters to produce their own webcasts, which also have the advantage of being accessible to anyone with an internet connection (i.e. relatives several states away), unlike the range and market limitations of terrestrial radio and TV."'
List of Internet stations
List of Internet television series
Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.