- Swiss peasant war of 1653
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Swiss peasant war of 1653
date=January – June
Lucerne, Berne, Solothurn, Basel, and the Aargau, in the Old Swiss Confederacy
result=Military victory of the ruling city councils
combatant1=Peasant forces (from
Lucerne, Berne, Solothurn, Basel, and the Aargau)
combatant2=City governments' troops,
Zürich, with soldiers from the Thurgau, Uri
Niklaus Leuenberger, Christian Schybi,
Sigmund von Erlach,
Sebastian Peregrin Zwyer
notes=The Swiss peasant war of 1653 was a popular revolt in the
Old Swiss Confederacyat the time of the Ancien Régime. A devaluation of Bernese money caused a tax revoltthat spread from the Entlebuchvalley in the Canton of Lucerneto the Emmentalvalley in the Canton of Berneand then to the cantons of Solothurn and Baseland also to the Aargau.
The population of the countryside demanded fiscal relief from their ruling authorities, the city councils of these cantons' capitals. When their demands were dismissed by the cities, the peasants organized themselves and threatened to blockade the cities. After initial compromises mediated by other cantons had failed, the peasants united under the treaty of
Huttwil, forming the "League of Huttwil". Their movement became more radical, going beyond the initially purely fiscal demands. The Huttwil League considered itself a political entity equal to and independent from the city authorities, and it assumed full military and political sovereignty in its territories.
The peasants laid siege on
Berneand Lucerne, whereupon the cities negotiated a peace agreement with the peasant leader Niklaus Leuenberger, the so-called peace on the Murifeld. The peasant armies retreated. The " Tagsatzung", the federal council of the Old Swiss Confederacy, then sent an army from Zürich to definitely end the rebellion, and after the Battle of Wohlenschwil, the Huttwil League was forcibly annulled in the peace of Mellingen. The last resistance in the Entlebuch valley was broken by the end of June. After their victory, the city authorities took drastic punitive measures. The Huttwil League and the peace of the Murifeld were declared null and void by the city council of Berne. Many exponents of the insurrection were captured, tortured, and finally received heavy sentences. Niklaus Leuenberger was beheaded and quartered in Berne on September 6, 1653.ref_label|fn_1|a|a
Although the military victory of the absolutist city authorities was complete, the war had also shown them that they depended very much on their rural subjects. Soon after the war, the ruling aristocrats instituted a series of reforms and even lowered some taxes, thus fulfilling some of the peasants' original fiscal demands. In the long term, the peasant war of 1653 prevented Switzerland from an excessive implementation of
absolutismas occurred in France during the reign of Louis XIV.Suter (1997) is the main source used.]
The Old Swiss Confederacy in the 17th century was a federation of thirteen largely independent cantons. The federation comprised rural cantons as well as city states that had expanded their territories into the countryside by political and military means at the cost of the previously ruling
liege lords. The cities just took over the preexisting administrative structures. In these city cantons, the city councils ruled the countryside; they held the judicial rights and also appointed the district sheriffs ("Landvögte").See generally Im Hof 1974/2001.]
Rural and urban cantons had the same standing in the federation. Each canton was sovereign within its territory, pursuing its own foreign politics and also minting its own money. The diet and central council of the federation, the "
Tagsatzung", held no real power and served more as a coordination instance. The reformation in the early 16th century had led to a confessional division amongst the cantons: the central Swiss cantons including Lucerne had remained Catholic, while Zürich, Berne, Basel, Schaffhausen, and also the city of St. Gallenhad become Protestant. The "Tagsatzung" was often paralysed by disagreements between the equally strong factions of the Catholic and Protestant sides.Würgler 2001.]
Territories that had been conquered since the early 15th century were governed as condominiums by the cantons. Reeves for these territories were assigned by the "Tagsatzung" for a period of two years; the posts changed bi-annually between the cantons.Holenstein (HDS 2005)] The Aargau had been annexed in 1415. The western part belonged to Berne, while the eastern part comprised the two condominiums of the former
County of Badenin the north and the " Freie Ämter" ("Free Districts")ref_label|fn_2|b|b in the south. The Free Districts had been forcibly recatholized after the Reformation in Switzerland, and the Catholic cantons, especially Lucerne, Zug, and Uriconsidered these districts part of their sphere of influence and the reeves typically came from these cantons.Wohler (HDS 2005)] The Thurgau, which had been annexed in 1460, was also a condominium of the Confederacy.
Causes of the conflict
At its root, the peasant war of 1653 was caused by the rapidly changing economic circumstances after the end of the
Thirty Years' War. The Swiss Confederacy had been spared from all belligerent action; the Swiss peasants generally had profited from the wartime economy as they had been able to export their agrarian products at higher prices than before. After the Peace of Westphalia, the southern German economy recovered quickly, the Swiss exports dwindled, and the prices for agrarian products dropped. Many Swiss peasants, who had raised mortgages during the boom at wartime, suddenly faced financial problems.Suter (HDS 2002)]
At the same time the war had since the 1620s caused significant expenses for the cities, e.g. for building better defenses such as new
bastions. A significant source of income for the cantons ran dry: their financial means exhausted by the war, France and Spain no longer paid the "Pensions", the agreed sums in return for the cantons providing them with mercenary regiments.Holenstein 2004, p. 33.] The city authorities tried to compensate for this and to cover their expenses on the one hand by increasing the taxes or inventing new ones and on the other hand by minting less valuable copper coins called "Batzen" that had the same face valueas the previously minted silver money. The population began hoarding the silver coins, and the cheap copper money that remained in circulation continually lost in purchasing power.ref_label|fn_3|c|c Zürich, Basel, and the central Swiss cantons therefore began already in 1623 to mint more valuable coins again. Berne and also Solothurn and Fribourgset a compulsory fixed exchange rate between copper and silver money instead, but this measure did not break the "de-facto" devaluation. At the end of the war, the population thus faced both a postwar depression and a high inflation, combined with high taxes.Suter 1997, p. 363ff.] Suter 2004, p. 146.] This financial crisis led to a series of tax revolts in several cantons of the Confederacy, for instance 1629–36 in Lucerne, 1641 in Berne, or 1645/46 in Zürich. The uprising in 1653 continued this series, but would take the conflict to an unprecedented level.
Since the 15th century, the political power in the city cantons had become more and more concentrated in the hands of a few urban families, who increasingly saw their public offices as hereditary positions and who developed aristocratic and absolutist attitudes. Slowly, an urban
oligarchyof magistrates had formed. This concentration of power in the city cantons in a small urban élite caused a veritable "participatory crisis" (Suter). The rural population increasingly was subject to decrees issued without their consent that restricted their rights of old and also their social and cultural freedom.Suter 1997, pp. 382, 390.] Holenstein 2004, p. 34f.]
Outbreak of the rebellion
At the beginning of December 1652, Berne devalued its copper "Batzen" by 50% to adjust its face value to its intrinsic value to combat the inflation. The authorities set a term of only three days to exchange the copper coins at the old rate against more stable gold or silver money. Not many people could thus take advantage of this exchange offer, and for most—and in particular the rural population—half their fortunes just vanished. The other cantons soon followed suit and similarly devalued the Bernese copper money. The situation was most dire in the Lucerne Entlebuch valley, where the Bernese "Batzen" were in widespread usage. The financial situation of many a peasant became unsustainable. Insider deals of the ruling magistrates of Lucerne furthered the unrest among the population.Suter 2004, p. 147.] Messmer 2003.] The peasants of the Entlebuch valley, led by
Hans Emmeneggerfrom Schüpfheimand Christian Schybifrom Escholzmatt, sent a delegation to Lucerne to demand remedies, but the city council refused to even hear them. The enraged peasants organized a general assembly (" Landsgemeinde") of the population of the valley at Heiligkreuz, in spite of such assemblies being illegal as the authorities' laws of the time denied the freedom of assembly.Holenstein 2004, p. 35ff.] The assembly, which took place after the mass on February 10, 1653, decided to suspend all tax payments until the authorities in Lucerne fulfilled their demands by reducing taxes and abolishing some of them altogether, such as the taxes on salt, cattle, and horse trades.Suter 1997, p. 122f.] Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 21.]
The authorities of Lucerne were not willing to grant the population's demands, but neither did they did manage to subdue this insurrection.Holenstein 2004, p. 37.] State Archive of Lucerne: "Bauernkrieg 1653"] The large majority of the rural districts of the
canton of Lucernesided with the peasants of the Entlebuch valley in an alliance concluded at Wolhusenon February 26, 1653. At the beginning of March, the people of the neighbouring Bernese Emmental valley joined their cause, addressing similar demands at the Bernese authorities. Both cantons called upon the other uninvolved members of the Old Swiss Confederacy to mediate in the conflict, but at the same time, the " Tagsatzung", the diet of the cantons' governments, also began to prepare for a military resolution. Troops from Schaffhausenand Basel were sent towards the Aargau, but this immediately solicited an armed resistance amongst the population such that the troops had to withdraw.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 39f.]
On March 18, 1653, the mediating Catholic central Swiss cantons proposed in Lucerne a resolution that fulfilled most of the peasants' demands, especially the fiscal ones.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 28.] In Berne, a similar compromise was proposed by a Protestant delegation from Zürich under the direction of the mayor of Zürich,
Johann Heinrich Waser, on April 4, 1653.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 37.] The Bernese Emmental and most of the districts of the canton of Lucerne accepted these resolutions and their representatives swore new oaths of fealty. But the people in the Entlebuch valley did not accept the authorities' terms, as these—besides offering some tax reliefs—criminalized the insurrection and called for the punishment of the leaders. At a meeting at Signauon April 10, 1653, the delegates from the Entlebuch convinced their neighbours in the Emmental: the assembly decided not to honor the new oaths its representatives had sworn in Berne.Holenstein 2004, p. 38f.] Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 39.]
Formation of the Huttwil League
The negotiations between the city authorities and the peasants were not continued. While the authorities debated at the "Tagsatzung" how to deal with the insurrection, the peasants worked to gain support for their cause amongst the rural population of other regions and lobbied for a formal alliance. A peasant delegation sent to Zürich was turned back promptly: the city authorities, who had put down local unrests in their territory already in 1645 and again in 1646, had already recognized the danger of the agitation.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 43.] On April 23, 1653, representatives of the people of the countryside of Lucerne, Berne, Basel, and Solothurn met at
Sumiswaldand concluded an alliance to help each other to achieve their goals. A week later, they met again at Huttwil, where they renewed that alliance and elected Niklaus Leuenbergerfrom Rüderswilin the Emmental as their leader.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 44.]
On May 14, 1653, the peasants met again at a "Landsgemeinde" at Huttwil and formalized their alliance as the "League of Huttwil" by signing a written contract in the style of the old "
Bundesbriefe" of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The treaty clearly established the league as a separate political entity that considered itself equal to and independent from the cities. The tax revolt had become an independence movement, based ideologically on the traditional Swiss founding legends, especially on the legend of William Tell. Legally, the peasants justified their assemblies and their union by the rights of old and in particular the " Stanser Verkommnis" of 1481, one of the important coalition treaties of the Old Swiss Confederacy.Holenstein 2004, pp. 39ff, 49.]
The peasants by then had assumed full sovereignty over the territory they controlled. They refused to acknowledge the jurisdiction of the city authorities and also had the military control over the area. The Huttwil League openly declared its intention to expand until it encompassed the rural population in the whole Confederacy.Holenstein 2004, p. 40.] The majority of the rural population supported the rebellion; the dissenting minority was silenced by threats of violence and sometimes violence indeed.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 45.] Communications between the cities were interrupted, official envoys were shaken down and ships on the rivers were captured. The peasants even sent a letter to the French ambassador at Solothurn assuring the French king
Louis XIVof their good intentions.
The confessional conflicts that dominated the relations between the ruling city authorities were only secondary to the peasants of the Huttwil league. The peasant alliance bridged the confessional divide, uniting Catholic people from the Entlebuch and from Solothurn with Protestant peasants from the Emmental and from Basel. The treaty of Huttwil explicitly recognized this biconfessionalism.Holenstein 2004, p. 47.] The cities remained in all their manoeuvring and negotiations for military support within their respective confessional spheres: Catholic Lucerne had requested mediation and then military help from the Catholic central Swiss cantons, while Protestant Berne had turned to Protestant Zürich for help. The distrust between the authorities of the Catholic and Protestant cantons was so deep that none would allow troops of the other confession to operate on their territories.Suter 2004, p. 151.]
Both sides began to prepare openly for an armed conflict. The cities faced the problem that their armies were militias, recruited from the rural population of their subject territories, but that precisely this rural population had turned against them. Berne began raising troops in the
Vaudand the Bernese Oberland, two regions unaffected by the uprising. The authorities of Berne and Lucerne were supported by the other cantons at the "Tagsatzung".Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 46.] In a dispatch from Zürich, the uprising was termed for the first time a "revolution".ref_label|fn_4|d|d
On May 18, 1653, the peasants delivered ultimatums to Berne and Lucerne and raised troops. When the city of Berne replied with a protest note, the peasants marched to Berne under the leadership of Leuenberger, arriving on May 22, 1653. A second army led by Emmenegger laid siege to Lucerne. The city authorities were unprepared for an armed conflict and immediately engaged in negotiations. Within days, peace agreements were concluded. In the peace on the Murifeld ("Murifeldfrieden", named after the field just outside of Berne where the peasant army's camp lay) signed by Leuenberger and the mayor of Berne,
Niklaus Dachselhofer, the city council of Berne promised on May 28, 1653, to fulfill the peasants' fiscal demands in return for the dissolution of the Huttwil League. In view of this development, the city of Lucerne and the besieging peasants agreed on a truce. Leuenberger's army lifted the siege of Berne and retreated, but the people refused to follow their leaders and objected to dissolving the Huttwil League.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, pp. 49–56.]
On May 30, 1653, following an earlier resolution of the "Tagsatzung" and earlier Bernese demands, Zürich assembled an army with recruits from its own territories, from the
Thurgau, and from Schaffhausenunder the command of Conrad Werdmüllerwith the task to break any armed resistance once and for all times. Some 8,000 men with 800 horses and 18 cannonsStüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 57.] Wahlen 1952, p. 69.] marched towards the Aargau. Already three days later, Werdmüller's army controlled the important crossing of the river Reuss at Mellingen. In the hills around the nearby villages Wohlenschwiland Othmarsingena peasant army of some 24,000 menWahlen 1952, p. 104.] assembled, led by Leuenberger and Schybi. A peasant delegation tried to negotiate with Werdmüller, showing him the peace treaty concluded on the Murifeld. Werdmüller, who had been until then unaware of this treaty that had been signed only days before, refused to acknowledge the validity of the contract and demanded the unconditional surrender of the peasants.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 59.] Wahlen 1952, p. 72.] Thus rebutted, the peasants attacked Werdmüller's troops on June 3, 1653, but being poorly equipped and lacking any artillery, they were defeated decisively in the Battle of Wohlenschwil. The peasants were forced to agree to the peace of Mellingen, which annulled the Huttwil League. The peasant troops returned home and an amnesty was declared, except for the leaders of the movement.
Bernese troops under the command of Sigmund von Erlach then advanced from Berne to the Aargau to meet the forces of Zürich. Under this double pressure, the peasants' resistance collapsed. Von Erlach's troops numbered about 6,000 men and 19 cannons.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 62.] The operation was a veritable
punitive expedition: the troops plundered the villages along their way and even razed the defenses of the small town of Wiedlisbach, which lost its town privilegesand was declared a village again. On June 7, 1653, the Bernese army met with a troop of about 2,000 men of Leuenberger's army who were on their way back from Wohlenschwil. The peasants retreated to Herzogenbuchsee, where they were defeated by von Erlach's troops; the little town went up in flames in the course of the battle.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, pp. 66f.] Niklaus Leuenberger fled and went hiding, but he was betrayed by a neighbour and was apprehended by the Bernese district sheriff Samuel Triboleton June 9, 1653.Wahlen 1952, p. 105.]
The Entlebuch valley, where the revolt had begun, resisted a little longer. Peasant troops under the command of Schybi tried in vain on June 5, 1653, to gain the bridge at
Gisikon, held by a joint army of the city of Lucerne and the central Swiss cantons commanded by Sebastian Peregrin Zwyerof Uri. In the following weeks, Zwyer's troops slowly advanced through the valley, until they controlled it completely by June 20, 1653. Schybi was captured a few days later and incarcerated at Sursee.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 69.]
The city authorities proceeded to punish severely the leaders of the Huttwil League. Berne did not accept the terms of the peace of Melligen with its amnesty, claiming the treaty was invalid on its territory, and cracked down hard on the rural population. The peasants were fined large sums and were made to cover the expenses for the military operations.Holenstein 2004, p. 51.] The peace of the Murifeld was declared null and void by the Bernese city council, as was the Huttwil League.Suter 2004, pp. 154f.] The rural population was disarmed. Many of the exponents of the movement were incarcerated, tortured, and finally sentenced to death or to hard labour on galleys, or exiled.Suter 2004, p. 162.] Christian Schybi was executed at
Surseeon July 9, 1653. Niklaus Leuenberger was beheaded and quartered at Berne on September 6, 1653; his head was nailed at the gallowstogether with one of the four copies of the "Bundesbrief" of the Huttwil League.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 374.] Punishment was hardest in the canton of Berne, where 23 death sentences were handed down and numerous other prominent peasants were executed in courts-martial by von Erlach's army,Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 68.] compared to eight and seven death sentences in Lucerne and Basel, respectively.Landolt 2004.]
Although the authorities had won a total military victory, they refrained from inflicting further draconian measures on the general population. The whole affair had clearly demonstrated that the cities depended on the support of their rural subjects. Putting down the insurrection had been achieved only with difficulties, and only with the help of troops from Zürich and Uri. Had the peasants succeeded to extend the Huttwil League to encompass the countryside of Zürich, the outcome of the conflict might have been different.Suter 2004, pp. 148, 151f.] The city authorities were well aware of their essentially lucky escape, and their actions in the following years reflect it.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 73.] While they took steps to disempower the rural population politically, they also fulfilled many of the peasants original fiscal demands, alleviating the economic pressure on them. Tax reforms were passed, to the point that for instance in the canton of Lucerne the overall taxation of the population decreased in the second half of the 17th century.Suter 2004, p. 153.]
Suter even concludes that the peasant war of 1653 thwarted a further advancement of absolutist trends in Switzerland and prevented a development like it occurred in France following the
Fronde. The authorities of the Swiss cantons had to act much more carefully and were forced to respect their rural subjects.Suter 2004, p. 150ff.] The Bernese for instance instructed their district sheriffs to employ a far less pompous and less authoritarian attitude to minimize the conflict potential. The city council even opened legal procedures against a few of its district sheriffs against whom there were many complaints from the rural population, accusing them of corruption, incompetence, and unjustified enrichment.Suter 1997, p. 404.] Holenstein 2004, p. 33.] Hostettler 2003.] The district sheriff of Trachselwald, the same Samuel Tribolet who had captured Niklaus Leuenberger, was dismissed, tried, and exiled in early 1654.ref_label|fn_5|e|e Abraham Stanyan, who had been ambassador of England in Berne from 1705 to 1713, published in 1714 an extensive treatise entitled "An account of Switzerland", in which he described the authorities' rule as particularly mild, mentioning explicitly the low taxation in comparison to other European states and giving as the reason for the comparatively soft-gloved government the fear of rebellions.Suter 2004, p. 152.] Stanyan 1714.]
In the decades following the peasant war the city authorities tried to suppress the memory of this nearly successful revolt. Resistance symbols like the flags or the weapons used by the peasants, in particular their typical clubs with nails on the hitting end (called "(Bauern-) Knüttel"), were outlawed, confiscated, and destroyed. Documents such as the "Bundesbriefe" of Huttwil were stashed away in the vaults of the city archives. Any public remembrances or pilgrimages to the places where the leaders had been executed were forbidden and carried the death penalty, as did the singing of the peasants' war songs.Suter 2004, pp. 154f.] Berne was particularly active in trying to censor the memories of the event and also tried to suppress images of the peasant leaders.Wirz "et al."] Historic texts written during the
Ancien Régime of Switzerlandgenerally follow the official diction and mention the peasant war, if they do so at all, only briefly and in negative terms. Works with differing viewpoints were often prohibited.Wirz 1653.] The censorshipwas not entirely successful; in private, the rural population kept the memories of 1653 alive,Suter 2004, p. 155.] and various accounts of the events were printed in Germany.University library of Lucerne: " [http://www.sondersammlungen.zhbluzern.ch/bk_start.htm Handschriften, Drucke und Bilder zum Bauernkrieg 1653] "; in German. URL last accessed 2006-08-17.]
In the 19th century, the official view was increasingly questioned. The aristocratic Ancien Régime had been weakened severely during the
Napoleonic Wars, when the Confederacy had been a French satellite state. The episode of the Helvetic Republic, short-lived as it had been, had instilled democratic ideals in the population. The restauration of the Ancien Régime after the end of the Napoleonic era proved to be only temporary, until Switzerland became a federal state in 1848 when its first democratic constitution was passed. During the restoration, democratic publishers instrumented and interpreted the history of the peasant war as an allegoryon the then current struggle for democracy, seeing the peasant war of 1653 as an early precursor of their own efforts to overcome the authoritarian regime. Well-known examples are the illustrations by Martin Distelifrom 1839/40, who used scenes from the peasant war in such allegoric ways.Suter 1997, pp. 55f.] JHolenstein 2004, p. 53.] Suter 2004, p. 155.]
The official view remained ambivalent at best, though. A scene devoted to the peasant war of 1653 in a theatre production for the Swiss
sexacentennialcelebrations in 1891, for instance, was cut on the demands of the organizers.Suter 2004, p. 156.] The first statues to honor the peasants of 1653 and their leaders were erected in 1903 on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the peasant war.Römer 2004, p. 12.] A monument honoring Schybi and Emmenegger was unveiled at Escholzmatt on July 26, 1903, at Rüderswil, a statue in honor of Leuenbergerref_label|fn_6|f|f was erected the same year,Suter 1997, pp. 53.] and at Liestalan obelisk honoring the peasant victims of the war was inaugurated on September 25, 1904.Römer 2004, p. 13f.] More statues and plaques were installed in various other places at the tricentennial of the war in 1953, for instance a relief showing Schybi in a chapel at Sursee, where the peasant leader had been incarcerated.
Ideological instrumentalizations of the peasant war occurred even in the 20th century. Hans Mühlestein, a Swiss Marxist historian, interpreted the events of 1653 in the 1940s and 1950s as an early
bourgeoisrevolution of a progressive bourgeoisie, fitting the Marxist concept of " class struggle"; a view considered untenable by many later historians.Suter 2004, p. 155.] Mühlestein 1942.]
Modern historians generally agree that the peasant war was an important event in Swiss history, and also in comparison to other popular revolts in late medieval Europe. Such revolts were rather common at the time and often were motivated by excessive taxation. The peasant war of 1653 stands out as a culminative end point in Switzerland for three reasons:
#The revolt spread quickly to cover several cantons, whereas previous uprisings in the Confederacy had invariably been local affairs.
#The peasants were well organized and for the first and only time mobilized veritable armies against their rulers, which hadn't happened before. The peasant leaders had clearly learned from previous unsuccessful smaller revolts they had been involved in.
#The peasants' goals for the first time went beyond a pure restoration of rights of old and tax relief: the Huttwil League radically denied the authorities' hitherto unquestioned entitlement to rule.Suter 1997.] Holenstein 2004, p. 52.]
In 2003, the city of Berne celebrated the 650th anniversary of its adherence to the Old Swiss Confederacy with many events, including a dedicated exposition at the Historical Museum that ran for several months and the publication of the history schoolbook "Berns mutige Zeit".Schwinges, R.C.; Gutscher-Schmid, C. (eds.): "Berns mutige Zeit", Stämpfli-Verlag, Berne 2003. ISBN 3-7272-1272-1. In German.] The simultaneous 350-year anniversary of the peasant war was reflected in the city only in a few newspaper articles, but it was widely celebrated in the coutrysideMuster.] with speeches, colloquia, and an ambitious and very successful open-air theatre production at
Eggiwilin the Emmental.Hostettler (2003-2)]
* All dates are given according to the
Gregorian calendar, which was already in effect in all the Catholic cantons. The Protestant cantons still followed the Julian calendarat that time.Stüssi-Lauterburg 2003, p. 20.]
* The "
Freie Ämter" ("Free Districts") were so called because they originally had been independent in terms of low justice, and thus to a large extent "free" in the medieval sense of the word.Wohler (HDS 2005): "Free Districts".]
* This process of devaluation of
commodity moneythat has an intrinsic value lower than its face value (so called "bad money") and its driving "good money" out of circulation is described by Gresham's Law.
* Incidentally, this note appears to be the first documented use of the word "revolution" with the modern meaning in the sense of a political revolution without any connotation of a circular movement.Suter 1997, p. 13.] Römer, J. (2004-2).]
* Because of his connections—he had married into the influential Bernese "von Graffenried" family—
Samuel Triboletwas allowed to return from exile after only two years in late 1655 and again served on the city council of Berne.
* The statue of Leuenberger at Rüderswil was donated by the "Ökonomische Gesellschaft Bern",Römer 2004, p. 23.] a society that was founded in 1759 and originally composed of members of the leading families of the city of Berne.Holenstein, A.; Pfister, Ch.; Stuber, M.: " [http://www.oeg.hist.unibe.ch/10/oeg-allgemein.html Die Oekonomische Gesellschaft Bern (OeG) 1759-1890] "; research project 2003–2009 of the
University of Berne. In German. URL last accessed 2006-11-22.]
*Holenstein, A. (2004): "Der Bauernkrieg von 1653. Ursachen, Verlauf und Folgen einer gescheiterten Revolution"; pp. 28 – 65 in: Römer, J. (ed.): "Bauern, Untertanen und "Rebellen", Orell Füssli Verlag, Zürich, 2004. ISBN 3-280-06020-6. An earlier, abridged version appeared [http://www.stub.unibe.ch/extern/hv/1_04/holenstein.pdf under the same title] in "Berner Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Heimatkunde, no. 66", pp. 1 – 43; 2004. (In German.)
*HDS|9817|Condominiums|author=Holenstein, A. (HDS 2005)|date=2005-09-06 URL last accessed
*Hostettler, U. (2003): " [http://homepage.sunrise.ch/mysunrise/uhostettler/stationen.html#BZ3 "Mach Mist, derweil Du Landvogt bist" – Die Gnädigen Herren – Samuel Tribolet] ",
Berner Zeitung, April 19, 2003. In German. URL last accessed 2006-11-20.
*Hostettler, U. (2003-2): " [http://homepage.sunrise.ch/mysunrise/uhostettler/stationen.html Stationentheater Eggiwil: Bauernkrieg 1653 – Skript] ". Script of a Swiss theatre production in 2003, including background information on the history. In German. URL last accessed
*Im Hof, U.: "Geschichte der Schweiz," 7th ed., Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1974/2001. ISBN 3-17-017051-1. In German.
*Landolt, N. (2004): "Revolte oder Krieg? Regional unterschiedliche Ausprägungen des Bauernkrieges 1653", pp. 87 –104 in Römer, J. (ed.): "Bauern, Untertanen und "Rebellen", Orell Füssli Verlag, Zürich, 2004. ISBN 3-280-06020-6.
*Messmer, K. (2003): " [http://www.staluzern.ch/schaufenster/bauernkrieg/bauernkrieg_nlz_beilage.pdf Die Entlebucher – der Ursprung alles Übels] ", Canton of Lucerne, Dept. of Justice and Culture, in collaboration with the newspaper "
Neue Luzerner Zeitung", 2003-03-15. In German. URL last accessed 2006-08-18.
*Mühlestein, H. (1942): "Der grosse schweizerische Bauernkrieg", self-published, Celerina, 1942. Reprinted 1977, Unionsverlag, Zürich; ISBN 3-293-00003-7. For a gist of this Marxist interpretation, see "Vorwärts": " [http://www.vorwaerts.ch/vorwaerts/texte/030825_bauernkrieg.php Der schweizerische Bauernkrieg 1653] ". URL last accessed
*Muster, E.: " [http://www.edimuster.ch/politik/1653.htm Texte und Bilder zum Grossen Schweizerischen Bauernkrieg von 1653] " ("Texts and images on the great Swiss peasant war of 1653"); in German. URL last accessed
*Römer, J. (2004): "1653: Geschichte, Geschichtsschreibung und Erinnerung", pp. 8 – 27 in Römer, J. (ed.): "Bauern, Untertanen und "Rebellen", Orell Füssli Verlag, Zürich, 2004. ISBN 3-280-06020-6.
*Stanyan, A. (1714): "An account of Switzerland", published by
Jacob Tonson, London, 1714.
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